Selenium interview questions

Top most important selenium interview questions and answers by Experts:

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1) What is Automation Testing?
Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves use to a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.
2) What are the benefits of Automation Testing?
Benefits of Automation testing are:
1. Supports execution of repeated test cases
2. Aids in testing a large test matrix
3. Enables parallel execution
4. Encourages unattended execution
5. Improves accuracy thereby reducing human generated errors
6. Saves time and money
3) Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?
1. is free and open source
2. have a large user base and helping communities
3. have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
4. have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
5. supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
6. has fresh and regular repository developments
7. supports distributed testing
4) What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?
Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.
Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.
The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:
• Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
• Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows user to create test scripts in a desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
• Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
• Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.
5) What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?
Selenium supports the following types of testing:
1. Functional Testing
2. Regression Testing
6) What are the limitations of Selenium?
Following are the limitations of Selenium:
• Selenium supports testing of only web based applications
• Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
• Captcha and Bar code readers cannot be tested using Selenium
• Reports can only be generated using third party tools like TestNG or Junit.
• As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support though the user can find numerous helping communities.
• User is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.
7) When should I use Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature makes it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.
8) What is Selenese?
Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.
9) What are the different types of locators in Selenium?
Locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:
• ID
• ClassName
• Name
• TagName
• LinkText
• PartialLinkText
• Xpath
• CSS Selector
10) What is difference between assert and verify commands?
Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.
Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halts i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.
11) What is an Xpath?
Xpath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, Xpath can be used to locate HTML elements.
The fundamental behind locating elements using Xpath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.
12) What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?
Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.
Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.
13) What is Same origin policy and how it can be handled?
The problem of same origin policy disallows to access the DOM of a document from an origin that is different from the origin we are trying to access the document.
Origin is a sequential combination of scheme, host and port of the URL. For example, for a URL http://, the origin is a combination of http,, 80 correspondingly.
Thus the Selenium Core (JavaScript Program) cannot access the elements from an origin that is different from where it was launched. For Example, if I have launched the JavaScript Program from “”, then I would be able to access the pages within the same domain such as “” or “”. The other domains like, would no more be accessible.
So, In order to handle same origin policy, Selenium Remote Control was introduced.

14) What is Selenium 2.0 ?
Web testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0
15) How will you find an element using Selenium?
In Selenium every object or control in a web page is referred as an elements, there are different ways to find an element in a web page they are
• ID
• Name
• Tag
• Attribute
• Linktext
• PartialLink Text
• Xpath etc
16) List out the test types that are supported by Selenium?
For web based application testing selenium can be used
The test types can be supported are
a) Functional
b) Regression
For post release validation with continuous integration automation tool could be used
a) Jenkins
b) Hudson
c) Quick Build
d) CruiseCont
17) Mention what is the use of X-path?
X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.
18) Explain the difference between single and double slash in X-path?
Single slash ‘/ ’
• Single slash ( / ) start selection from the document node
• It allows you to create ‘absolute’ path expressions
Double Slash ‘// ’
• Double slash ( // ) start selection matching anywhere in the document
• It enables to create ‘relative’ path expressions

19) List out the technical challenges with Selenium?
Technical challenges with Selenium are
• Selenium supports only web based applications
• It does not support the Bitmap comparison
• For any reporting related capabilities have to depend on third party tools
• No vendor support for tool compared to commercial tools like HP UFT
• As there is no object repository concept in Selenium, maintainability of objects becomes difficult
20) What is the difference between type keys and type commands ?
TypeKeys() will trigger JavaScript event in most of the cases whereas .type() won’t. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript whereas .typekeys() emulates like actual user typing
21) What is the difference between verify and assert commands?
Assert: Assert allows to check whether an element is on the page or not. The test will stop on the step failed, if the asserted element is not available. In other words, the test will terminated at the point where check fails.
Verify: Verify command will check whether the element is on the page, if it is not then the test will carry on executing. In verification, all the commands are going to run guaranteed even if any of test fails.
22) What is JUnit Annotations and what are different types of annotations which are useful ?
In JAVA a special form of syntactic meta-data can be added to Java source code, this is know as Annotations. Variables, parameters, packages, methods and classes are annotated some of the JUnit annotations which can be useful are
• Test
• Before
• After
• Ignore
• BeforeClass
• AfterClass
• RunWith
23) While using click command can you use screen coordinate?
To click on specific part of element, you would need to use clickAT command. ClickAt command accepts element locator and x, y co-ordinates as arguments-
clickAt (locator, cordString)
24) What are the advantages of Selenium?
• It supports C#, PHP, Java, Perl, Phython
• It supports different OS like Windows, Linux and Mac OS
• It has got powerful methods to locate elements (Xpath, DOM , CSS)
• It has highly developer community supported by Google
25) What are the four parameter you have to pass in Selenium?
Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are
• Host
• Port Number
• Browser
26) What is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?
Both will delay the speed of execution.
Thread.sleep () : It will stop the current (java) thread for the specified period of time. Its done only once
• It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: thread.sleep(2000)- It will wait for 2 seconds
• It waits only once at the command given at sleep
SetSpeed () : For specific amount of time it will stop the execution for every selenium command.
• It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: selenium.setSpeed(“2000”)- It will wait for 2 seconds
• Runs each command after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed
This command is useful for demonstration purpose or if you are using a slow web application

27) What is same origin policy? How you can avoid same origin policy?
The “Same Origin Policy” is introduced for security reason, and it ensures that content of your site will never be accessible by a script from another site. As per the policy, any code loaded within the browser can only operate within that website’s domain.
To avoid “Same Origin Policy” proxy injection method is used, in proxy injection mode the Selenium Server acts as a client configured HTTP proxy , which sits between the browser and application under test and then masks the AUT under a fictional URL
28) What is heightened privileges browsers?
The purpose of heightened privileges is similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that are not commonly permitted. The key difference is that the browsers are launced in a special mode called heightened privileges. By using these browser mode, Selenium core can open the AUT directly and also read/write its content without passing the whole AUT through the Selenium RC server.
29) How you can use “submit” a form using Selenium ?
You can use “submit” method on element to submit form-
element.submit () ;
Alternatively you can use click method on the element which does form submission
30) What are the features of TestNG and list some of the functionality in TestNG which makes it more effective?
TestNG is a testing framework based on JUnit and NUnit to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from unit testing to integration testing. And the functionality which makes it efficient testing framework are
• Support for annotations
• Support for data-driven testing
• Flexible test configuration
• Ability to re-execute failed test cases
31) Mention what is the difference between Implicit wait and Explicit wait?
Implicit Wait: Sets a timeout for all successive Web Element searches. For the specified amount of time it will try looking for element again and again before throwing a NoSuchElementException. It waits for elements to show up.
Explicit Wait : It is a one-timer, used for a particular search.
32) Which attribute you should consider throughout the script in frame for “if no frame Id as well as no frame name”?
You can use…..driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//iframe”))….
This will return list of frames.
You will ned to switch to each and every frame and search for locator which we want.
Then break the loop
33) Explain what is the difference between find elements () and find element () ?
find element ():
It finds the first element within the current page using the given “locating mechanism”. It returns a single WebElement
findElements () : Using the given “locating mechanism” find all the elements within the current page. It returns a list of web elements.
34) Explain what are the JUnits annotation linked with Selenium?
The JUnits annotation linked with Selenium are
• @Before public void method() – It will perform the method () before each test, this method can prepare the test
• @Test public void method() – Annotations @Test identifies that this method is a test method environment
• @After public void method()- To execute a method before this annotation is used, test method must start with test@Before
35) Explain what is Datadriven framework and Keyword driven?
Datadriven framework: In this framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while test case logic resides in Test Scripts. Test data is read from the external files ( Excel Files) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used for both for input values and for verification values.
Keyworddriven framework: The keyword driven frameworks requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation. In a keyword driven test, the functionality of the application under test is documented in a table as well as step by step instructions for each test.
36) Explain how you can login into any site if it’s showing any authentication popup for password and username?
Pass the username and password with url
• Syntax-http://username:password@url
• ex-
37) Explain how to assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0 ?
WebElement el = driver.findElement(“ElementID”))
//get test from element and stored in text variable
String text = el.getText();
//assert text from expected
Assert.assertEquals(“Element Text”, text);
38) What is Object Repository ?
An object repository is an essential entity in any UI automations which allows a tester to store all object that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than scattered all over the test scripts.
39) Explain how Selenium Grid works?
Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. These tests are redirected to Selenium Webdriver, which launch the browser and run the test. With entire test suite, it allows for running tests in parallel.
30) Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?
Yes. But not as effectively as a dedicated performance testing tool like Loadrunner.

31) When should I use Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.
32) What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?
Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.
33) Which is the latest Selenium tool?
34) How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?
The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
35) What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?
The different drivers available in WebDriver are:
• FirefoxDriver
• InternetExplorerDriver
• ChromeDriver
• SafariDriver
• OperaDriver
• AndroidDriver
• IPhoneDriver
• HtmlUnitDriver
36) What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?
There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:
1. Implicit Wait
2. Explicit Wait
Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.
Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.
37) How to type in a textbox using Selenium?
User can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the textbox.
WebElement username = drv.findElement(“Email”));
// entering username
38) How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?
WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.
1. isDisplayed()
2. isSelected()
3. isEnabled()
boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();
boolean buttonSelected = driver.findElement(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();
boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();
39) How can we get a text of a web element?
Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.
String Text = driver.findElement(“Text”)).getText();
40) How to select value in a dropdown?
Value in the drop down can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.
Select selectByValue = newSelect(driver.findElement(“SelectID_One”)));
Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(“SelectID_Two”)));
Select selectByIndex = newSelect(driver.findElement(“SelectID_Three”)));
41) What are the different types of navigation commands?
Following are the navigation commands:
navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.
Sample code:
navigate().forward() – This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.
Sample code:
navigate().refresh() – This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.
Sample code:
navigate().to() – This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.
Sample code:
42) How to click on a hyper link using linkText?
The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page.
The above mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command.
The above command find the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.
43) How to handle frame in WebDriver?
An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document with in the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.
Select iframe by id
driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“);
Locating iframe using tagName
Locating iframe using index
frame(Name of Frame)
driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);
frame(WebElement element)
Select Parent Window
44) When do we use findElement() and findElements()?
findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.
WebElement element =driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.
List <WebElement> elementList =driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
45) How to find more than one web element in the list?
At times, we may come across elements of same type like multiple hyperlinks, images etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.
Sample Code
1 // Storing the list
2 List <WebElement> elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
3 // Fetching the size of the list
4 int listSize = elementList.size();
5 for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)
6 {
7 // Clicking on each service provider link
8 serviceProviderLinks.get(i).click();
9 // Navigating back to the previous page that stores link to service providers
10 driver.navigate().back();
11 }
46) What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit command?
close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.
quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.
47) Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. Therefore, windows pop up cannot be handled using Selenium.
48) How can we handle web based pop up?
WebDriver offers the users with a very efficient way to handle these pop ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be using along with the Alert interface.
• void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
• void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
• String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed on the alert box.
• void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.
// accepting javascript alert
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();
49) How can we handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing, that means, it doesn’t support testing of windows based applications. However Selenium alone can’t help the situation but along with some third party intervention, this problem can be overcome. There are several third party tools available for handling window based pop ups along with the selenium like AutoIT, Robot class etc.
50) How to assert title of the web page?
//verify the title of the web page
assertTrue(“The title of the window is incorrect.”,driver.getTitle().equals(“Title of the page”));
51) How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?
WebDriver offers a wide range of interaction utilities that the user can exploit to automate mouse and keyboard events. Action Interface is one such utility which simulates the single user interactions.
Thus, In the following scenario, we have used Action Interface to mouse hover on a drop down which then opens a list of options.
Sample Code:
1 // Instantiating Action Interface
2 Actions actions=new Actions(driver);
3 // howering on the dropdown
4 actions.moveToElement(driver.findElement(“id of the dropdown”))).perform();
5 // Clicking on one of the items in the list options
6 WebElement subLinkOption=driver.findElement(“id of the sub link”));
52) What is a framework?
Framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.
53) What are the advantages of Automation framework?
Advantage of Test Automation framework
• Reusability of code
• Maximum coverage
• Recovery scenario
• Low cost maintenance
• Minimal manual intervention
• Easy Reporting
54) What are the different types of frameworks?
Below are the different types of frameworks:
1. Module Based Testing Framework: The framework divides the entire “Application Under Test” into number of logical and isolated modules. For each module, we create a separate and independent test script. Thus, when these test scripts taken together builds a larger test script representing more than one module.
2. Library Architecture Testing Framework: The basic fundamental behind the framework is to determine the common steps and group them into functions under a library and call those functions in the test scripts whenever required.
3. Data Driven Testing Framework: Data Driven Testing Framework helps the user segregate the test script logic and the test data from each other. It lets the user store the test data into an external database. The data is conventionally stored in “Key-Value” pairs. Thus, the key can be used to access and populate the data within the test scripts.
4. Keyword Driven Testing Framework: The Keyword driven testing framework is an extension to Data driven Testing Framework in a sense that it not only segregates the test data from the scripts, it also keeps the certain set of code belonging to the test script into an external data file.
5. Hybrid Testing Framework: Hybrid Testing Framework is a combination of more than one above mentioned frameworks. The best thing about such a setup is that it leverages the benefits of all kinds of associated frameworks.
6. Behavior Driven Development Framework: Behavior Driven Development framework allows automation of functional validations in easily readable and understandable format to Business Analysts, Developers, Testers, etc.
55) How can I read test data from excels?
Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API.See detailed tutorial here.
56) Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?
WebDriver cannot test Mobile applications. WebDriver is a web based testing tool, therefore applications on the mobile browsers can be tested.
60) Can captcha be automated?
No, captcha and bar code reader cannot be automated.
61) What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?
Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Thus, whenever the element is required within the script, the locator value can be populated from the Object Repository. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location instead of hard coding them within the scripts.
In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.


Qc interview questions

Top most important qc interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important qc interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download qc interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these qc interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

If you want to become an expert in qc ,Register for qc online training here.


1.How does the records appear in Quality Center?
By default in the order in which they were added.

2. How can we save the tests executed in Test Lab?
They saved automatically when the users clicks on “END RUN” in the Test Lab.
3. How do you run reports from Quality Center?
To run reports from QC:
1. Open the Quality Center project
2. It displays the requirements modules
3. Choose report: Analysis > reports > standard requirements report
4. What is use of Test Instance?
Test instance is required to run the test case in the lab. We can’t directly test case in the lab, instead we need to run test instance of that test case.
5. What is Risk Category?
We determine the risk category for each assessment requirement under the analysis requirement, It has two factors:
1. Business Criticality
2. Failure Probability.

6.What is assessment requirement?
Assessment requirement represents requirements that are children of analysis requirement and at lower level in tree hierarchy.
7. What are roles and responsibilities of QC admin?
Roles & responsibilities of QC Admin are:
1. Project Creation
2. Managing users and their authentication.
3. Performance monitoring.
4. Data backup etc.
8. How do you find duplicates bugs in the Quality Center?
We can find duplicate bugs in the defect manager tab using “Find Similar Defects” button. We need to enter defect description in brief and it shows similar defects.
9. Does Quality Center supports UNIX Operating environment?
Yes, Quality center comes with two kinds of licenses:
1. Quality Center for Windows.
2. Quality Center for UNIX.
10. Why to use Filters? How you define it?
To see the records that meet the specific criteria that we define we use filters. We can define multiple items as Filter.
11. What the Users group determines?
The users group determines the privileges that the user has within a project.
12. What is Unattached Folder in Test Plan?
When we delete a folder or test from the test plan tree there are two ways. We can delete only folder or we can delete that folder, its sub folder and test also. When we delete only folder, all the tests under it moved to the unattached folder in the test plan tree.
13. What is Matching Defects?
Matching Defects helps us to find and eliminate duplicate or similar defects in project. There are two methods to search of similar defects.
• Finding similar Defects which compare a selected defect with all other existing defects in project.
• Finding similar Text which compares a specific test string against all other existing defects in project.
14. What is Defect Tracking?
Defect Tracking is a method of finding and removing application defects. We can add or detect defects to project in any stage of application management process.
15. Is ‘Not covered’ and ‘Not run’ status are same?
No, there is difference between ‘Not Covered’ and ‘Not Run’ status.
Not Covered status means all those requirements for which the test cases are not written and Not Run status means all those requirements for which test cases are written but are not run.
16. Explain Version Control?
To keep track of changes made to entities in the project we use version control. We can create QC entities and also keep previous version of those entities in requirements to track the changes.
17. What is test set notification, and when we need it?
 To inform any specific user we use test set notification if case of any failure.
18. What is the need of Host Manager?
Host manager helps to run test on a host connected to our network. It shows the list of available host for test execution and also organizes them into groups for a specific project.
19.Explain Linking Defect to test in Quality Control?
 Defects can be linked to test in the defect grid. It helps to run the tests based on the status of the defect. Defects can be linked to other entities as well such as requirements. Linking can be direct or indirect. If the defect link is with entity then QC adds a direct link and if the link is with run step then QC adds an indirect link to its run, test instance, test set and test.
20.What is the default database in Quality Center?
SQL Server is the default database in Quality Center.
That’s all about HP Quality Center Interview Questions and Answers. Prepare these questions multiple times and I am sure you will find it easy to learn this tool as well as clear the interview easily.
21. What is Quality Center?
Quality Center is a product of HP known as HP QC or Quality Center or HP ALM (application Lifecycle Management) tool. It is a web based test management tool which supports various phases of software development life cycle. It helps in improving application quality with more effective implementation of a project and it is cost efficient too.
22. What are the benefits of using Quality Center?
 Quality Center is simple and one of the best test management tool. Its benefits are:
1. It can be accessed through an IE browser.
2. Project database of a test can be maintained by QC.
3. It can be integrated with HP testing tools like QTP and Load Runner. It is also compatible with third party tools.
4. It helps in effectively executing test sets, collecting results and analyzing data.
5. It helps in monitoring defects closely.
6. QC can be linked to an email system which provides an easy way to share defect tracking information.
7. It can be used for creating reports and graphs which helps in analyzing test data.
8. It supports virtual environments like Citrix XenApp 6.0 and VMware ESX 5.0.
23. What is the first & latest version of Quality Center?
 Quality Center 8.0 is the first version and Quality Center or ALM 12.0 is the latest version.
24. Explain the modules of Quality Center?
 The Quality Center modules are:
1. Release Module: Allows us creating a project release. Each release can have multiple cycles.
2. Requirement Module: Allows us in managing requirements like what we are testing, what are the requirement topics and items and what are the analyzing requirements.
3. Test Plan: Allows us to write test cases for the requirements in a hierarchical tree-structure.
4. Test Resources: Allows us in managing test resources. Tests resources can be associated with tests.
5. Test lab: Allows us to run tests and analyze the results.
6. Defect Module: Allows us to log all the failed test cases results.
7. Dashboard: Allows us to create graphs and reports.
25. How many built in tables does Quality Center have?
 There are six built in tables:
1. Test Table
2. Test Step Table
3. Test Set Table
4. Run Table
5. Defect Table
6. Requirement Table

26. How many types of reports and graphs are there in Quality Center?
Reports and graphs can be generated any time and in each and every phase with QC module during the testing process by using default or customize settings like requirement, test plan, test lab or defect module. We can also get summary and progress reports.
27. Which types of database are used in Quality Center?
 When a Quality Center Project is created we have to store and manage the data generated and collected by Quality Center. Each and every project is supported by a database that is used to store project information. The following database applications are used to store and manage Quality Center information:
• Oracle Standard/Enterprise Edition
• Oracle
• Microsoft SQL Server 2005 (SP2).
28. How does u control the access to a QC project?
We need to specify the users and the privileges for each user.
29. How many types of tabs are there in Quality Center?
Following types of tabs are available:
1. Requirement: Helps in tracking the customer requirements.
2. Test plan: Helps in designing the test cases and to store the test scripts.
3. Test lab: Helps in executing the test cases and track the results.
4. Defect: Helps in logging a defect and to track the logged defects.
30. What are the different edition for HP QC or HP ALM?
The different edition of HP QC/ALM includes:
• HP ALM essentials:It is used by the corporates that need the basic features for supporting their entire software life cycle.
• HP QC enterprise edition:It is used by corporates more commonly who use ALM more testing purposes, also provides integration with UFT
• HP ALM performance center edition:It is best suitable for organizations who would like to use HP ALM to drive HP-Loadrunner scripts. It helps the users to manage, maintain, execute, schedule and monitor performance tests.
31. What is the difference between Test Director and Quality Center?
Quality center is the advanced version of Test Director. It has more features than Test Director.
32. Do we have programming interface in Quality Center?
No, we don’t have programming interface in Quality Center.
33. What is the difference between Quality Center and Bugzilla?
 Quality Center is a test management tool which supports various phases of software development life cycle whereas BugZilla is Defect Management tool only.
34. What is meant by test lab in Quality Center?
Test lab is a functionality of Quality center using which we execute tests. We create test trees and add tests to those trees and placed them under test plan in a project. These tests then needs to imported in the Test lab module where Quality center executes them.
35. How can we import test cases from Excel to Quality Center?
To import test cases from Excel to Quality Center:
1. We need to Install and Configure the Microsoft Excel Add-In for Quality Center.
2. Need to Map the Columns present in the Excel with Columns in Quality Center.
3. Export the data from Excel using “Export to Quality Center option” in Excel.
4. Check for the errors if any.
36. How can we export the file from Quality Center to Excel/Word?
A file can be exported from any of the following tab in excel or word format.
1. Requirement tab:
1. Right click on main Requirement
2. Click on export
3. Save as word, excel or other template.
2. Test plan tab:
1. Select a test script.
2. Click on the design steps tab.
3. Right click anywhere in the window
4. Click on export and save as.Note: Only individual test can be exported. No parent child export is possible.
3. Test lab tab:
1. Select a child group.
2. Click on execution grid.
3. Right click and save in excel or other format.
4. Defects Tab:
1. Right click anywhere in the window.
2. Export all or selected defects.
3. Save them in excel sheet or any other format.
37. What is Business Component?
Business component is used for Business Process testing known as BPT. Business component provide script free environment for creating tests.
38. How to use QTP as an automation tool in Quality Center?
Using QTP add-in in Quality Center we can use QTP as an automation tool.
39. How to switch between two projects in Quality Center?
There is difference in switching between two projects in Quality Center 9.0 and above and in other versions.

QC 9.0:- Select Tools then Change Projects and Select Project.
Other versions: Log-off and log-in again.
40. What is Coverage status?
Percentage of testing covered at a given time is known as Coverage status. It helps in tracking project status.
41. Explain the architecture of HP-ALM?
HP ALM has following components:
1. HP ALM client.
2. ALM server/Application server.
3. Database servers.
42. What are the components of Dashboard Analysis?
The dashboard analysis has two components.
• Analysis View which contain analysis tree.
• Dashboard View which contains dashboard tree.
43. What types of requirements can be added to test cases in Quality Center?
There are two types of requirements can be added to test cases in Quality Center:
Parent Requirements which covers high level functions of the requirements
Child Requirements which covers low level functions of the requirements.
44. What is Sprinter in HP-ALM?
 Sprinter provides automated environment to execute various manual testing tasks. It offers advanced tools which helps in easy execution of testing tasks.

45. How to use Quality Center in real time project?
Following are the steps to use Quality Center in real time project.
1. Complete the preparation of test cases.
2. Export the test cases into Quality Center and Load them in the test plan module
3. Move the test cases from test plan tab to the test lab module.
4. Execute the test cases and check for the results
5. If we got any defects and raise the defects in the defect module.
46. How to map the requirements with test cases in Quality Center?
We can map the requirements with test cases in QC:
1. In the requirements tab select coverage view.
2. Select requirement by clicking on parent/child or grandchild.
3. On right hand side another window will appear. It has two tabs:
(a) Tests coverage
(b) Details
Test coverage tab will be selected by default or you click on it.
4. Click on select tests button a new window will appear on right hand side and you will see a list of all tests. You can select any test case you want to map with your requirements.
47. What is a Table in QC project?
A table is a part of database which stores records of information about the test plan.
48. What does a live analyses graph displays in Quality Center?
Quality Center live analyses graph provides a visual overview of all tests within a folder in test plan tree.
49. What are the phases of test management with Quality Center in order?
There are 5 phases: Specify releases, Specify requirements, Plan tests, Execute tests, Track defects.
50. What are the interfaces of Quality center?
The interfaces of QC are:
• Site Admin
• Quality Center



Qtp interview questions


Top most important qtp interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important qtp interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download qtp interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these qtp interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

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1) Which environments are supported by QTP?
QTP supports the following environments
• Active X
• Delphi
• Java
• .Net
• Oracle • People Soft
• Power Builder
• Siebel
• Stingray • Terminal Emulator
• Visual Basic
• Visual Age
• Web
• Web Services

2) What are the types object Repositories in QTP.
QTP Supports 2 types of Object Repository
1) Shared Object Repository (also called Global)

2) Per-Action Object Repository, (also called Local)
Per-Action Object Repository is used by default. The extension for Per-Action repository is “.mtr” .
Shared Object Repository is preferable while dealing with dynamic objects which are called in multiple tests. The extension is “.tsr”
3) Can we call QTP test from another test using scripting. Suppose there are 4 tests and I want to call these tests in a main script. Is this possible in QTP?
Yes. You can call 4 or even more scripts in your tests.For this, first you will need to make the Actions in the corresponding scripts re-usable.Then from the destination script you can make calls to these re-usable actions.
4) What is action split and the purpose of using this in QTP?
Action split is to divide an existing action into two parts.The purpose is to divide actions based on their functionality to improve code re-use.
5) How will you handle Java tree in QTP ?
Foremost you will select Java Add – In and launch QTP. Next step record operations on the Java Tree. If you face an issue while recording, you can select Tools > Object Identification > Java, tree object and make changes in mandatory and assistive properties to enable identification.
Tip: You can base you answer on similar lines for any other object of any environment. For example : If the question is how will check SAP checkbox , You say , first I will select SAP Add in … and so on.
6) Explain how QTP identifies object ?
QTP identifies any GUI Object based on its corresponding properties. While recording, QTP will identify and store peculiar properties (as defined in the Object Identification settings) in the object repository of the GUI object . At run-time, QTP will compare the stored property values with the on-screen properties, to uniquely identify the GUI object.
7) How many types of recording modes in QTP? Which will be used when ?
QTP supports 3 types of recording modes

1. Normal mode also called Contextual
2. Low-level recording mode
3.Analog mode
Normal Mode: It is the default recording mode and takes full advantage of QTP’s Test Object Model. It recognizes objects regardless of their position on -screen. This is the preferred mode of recoding and is used for most of the automation activities.
Low-level recording mode: This mode records the exact x,y co-ordinates of your mouse operations. It is helpful in testing hashmaps. It is useful for recording objects not identified by normal mode of QTP.
Analog mode: This mode records exact mouse and keyboard “movements” you perform in relation to the screen / application window. This mode is useful for the operation such as drawing a picture, recording signature., drag and drop operations.
8) How will you call from one action to another action ?
We can call an action in 2 ways
1) Call to copy of Action. – In this ,the Action Object Repository , Script and Datable will be copied to the destination Test Script.
2) Call to Existing Action. – In this, Object Repository , Script and Datable will NOT be copied but a call (reference) would be made to the Action in the source script.
9) What are Virtual Objects?
Your application may contain objects that behave like standard objects but are not recognized by QTP. You can define these objects as virtual objects and map them to standard classes, such as a button or a check box. QTP emulates the user’s action on the virtual object during the run session. In the test results, the virtual object is displayed as though it is a standard class object.
For example, suppose you want to record a test on a Web page containing a bitmap that the user clicks. The bitmap contains several different hyperlink areas, and each area opens a different destination page. When you record a test, the Web site matches the coordinates of the click on the bitmap and opens the destination page.
To enable QTP to click at the required coordinates during a run session, you can define a virtual object for an area of the bitmap, which includes those coordinates, and map it to the button class. When you run a test, QTP clicks the bitmap in the area defined as a virtual object so that the Web site opens the correct destination page.
10) How to perform Cross platform testing and Cross browser testing using QTP? Can u explain giving some example?
You will need to create separate Actions which take care of different OS and Browsers
Cross Platform Testing:

Using the Built in Environment Variable you can dig up the OS information.
Eg. Platform = Environment(“OS”). Then based on the Platform you need to call the actions which you recorded on that particular platform.

Cross Browser Testing:

Using this code Eg. Browser(“Core Values”).GetROProperty(“version”) you can extract the Browser and its correspondin version. Ex: Internet Explorer 6 or Netscape 5. Based on this value you call the actions which are relevant to that browser.
11) What is logical name of the object?
Logical name is a name given by QTP while creating an object in the repository to uniquely identify it from other objects in the application. This name would be used by the QTP to map the object name in script with its corresponding description in the object repository. Ex: Browser(“Browser”).Page(“Guru99”) Here Guru99 is the logical name of the object.
12) What is descriptive programming?
Typically ,an object and its properties must be recorded in the Object Repository to enable QTP to perform action s on it.
Using descriptive programming , you do not store the object and its property values in the Object repository but mention the property value pair directly in the script.
The idea behind descriptive programming is not bypass the object repository but help recognize dynamic objects.
13)What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser & page when using descriptive programming ?
You can use the name property
ex: Browser(“name:=”xxx””).page(“name:=”xxxx””)…..


We can also use the property “micClass”.
ex: Browser(“micClass:=browser”).page(“micClass:=page”)….
14)Can we record an application running on a remote machine using QTP ?
Yes .you can record remote application provided you are accessing application through the local browser not via remoter like citrix.
If you are still unable to record it is advisable install QTP and application, on the same machine
15) Explain the keyword CreateObject with an example.
Creates and returns a reference to an Automation object
SYNTAX: CreateObject(servername.typename [, location])
servername: Required. The name of the application providing the object.
typename : Required. The type or class of the object to create.
location : Optional. The name of the network server where the object is to be created.

Example : Set IE = CreateObject(“InternetExplorer.Application”)
16) Can you switch between Per-Action and Shared Object Repository ? If yes how ?
Yes .We can switch. Go to Test—>Settings—>Resources. Here you have an option to choose repositories.
17) What is Object Spy ? How to Use it ?
Object Spy helps in determining the run & test time object properties & methods of the application under test.
You can access object spy directly from the toolbar or from the Object Repository Dialog Box.
It is very useful during Descriptive Programming
18) When ordinal identifiers alone can make an object unique then why they are not given top priority? Why it is first mandatory and next assistive. Why we cannot go for ordinal identifiers directly?
Consider the following –
a) If two objects are overlapped on each other than location based object recognition will fail.
b) If only index based recognition is used your script will work but script execution time will increase.
Hence mandatory and assistive properties are used.
19) What is the file extension of the code file in QTP?
Code file extension is script.mts
20) Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.
QTP Automation Object model deals with Automation of QTP itself. Almost all configuration and functionality provided by QTP is represented by QTP’s Automation Object Model . Almost all dialog boxes in QTP have a corresponding automation object which can set or retrieved using the corresponding properties or methods in the Automation Object Model.QTP Automation Objects can be used along with standard VB programming elements like iterative loops or conditional statements to help you design a script of choice.
21) What is the use of Text output value in QTP?
Text Output values enable you to capture text appearing on the application under test during run-time.
If parameterized, text output values will capture values appearing in each iteration which would be stored in the run-time data table for further analysis.
22) What is Step Generator?
Step Generator enables use to Add Test Steps in your script. Using step generator you can add steps to your script without actually recording it.
23) How to make QTP understand the difference amongst the same type of objects .Suppose there are 5 check boxes in a page and I have to choose the 2nd one, how to do that through script?
You can use ordinal identifiers like index along with a little descriptive programming for object recognition.
24) What is Test Fusion Report ?.
Test Fusion Report , displays all aspects of a test run and is organized in a Tree format.
It gives details of each step executed for all iterations.
It also gives Run-time data table, Screen shots and movie of the test run if opted.
25) How can you handle exceptions in QTP?
In QTP Exceptional handling is done by using
a. Recovery Scenarios.
b. Using “On Error” statement
In Recovery scenario you have to define.
1. Triggered Events.
2. Recovery steps.
3. Post Recovery Test-Run.
At Script Level you can use the On Error Resume Next and On Error Go to 0 statement.
26) What are the types of environment variables in QTP ?
Environment variables in QTP are of three types:
1) Built-in (Read only)
2) User-defined Internal (Read only)
3) User-defined External (Read/Write)
You Set the Environment Variable using the following syntax
Environment.Value( “name”) = “rvhtech”
You can Retrieve the Environment Variable using following syntax
Environment.Value(“name”) — This will retrun name as Guru99
Environment.Value(“OS”) — This will return your system OS
27) What is the Difference between Bitmap Check point & Image Check point?
Bitmap checkpoint does a pixel to pixel comparison of an image or part of an image.
Image checkpoint does do a pixel to pixel comparison but instead compare image properties like alt text , destination url etc.
28) What is the difference between functions and actions in QTP?
Actions have their own Object Repository & Data Table. Actions help make your Test modular and increase reuse. Example: You can divide your script into Actions based on functionality like Login, Logout etc.
Functions is a VB Script programming concept and do not have their own Object Repository or Data Table. Functions help in re-use of your code. Ex: You can create a Function in your script to concatenate two strings.
29) What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP?
Keyword View is an icon based view which shows test steps in tabular format. It also automatically generates documentation for the test steps.
Expert View gives the corresponding VB Script statement for every test step in the Keyword view.
30) Explain QTP Testing process? –
Quick Test testing process consists of 6 main phases:
1) Create your test plan – This is preparatory phase where you identify the exact test steps, test data and expected results for you automated test. You also identify the environment and system configurations required to create and run your QTP Tests.
2) Recording a session on your application – During this phase , you will execute test steps one by one on your AUT ,and QTP will automatically record corresponding VB script statements for each step performed.
3) Enhancing your test – In this stage you will insert checkpoints , output values , parameterization , programming logic like if…else loops to enhance the logic of your test script.
4) Replay & Debug – After enhancements you will replay the script to check whether its working properly and debug if necessary.
5) Run your Tests – In this phase you will perform the actual execution of your Test Script.
6) Analyzing the test results – Once test run is complete, you will analyze the results in the Test Fusion report generated.
7) Reporting defects – Any incidents identified needs to be reported. If you are using Quality Center , defects can be automatically raised for failed tests in QTP.
31) What are the different types of Test Automation Frameworks ?
The types of Automation Frameworks are –
1) Linear Scripting – Record & Playback
2) The Test Library Architecture Framework.
3)The Data-Driven Testing Framework.
4)The Keyword-Driven or Table-Driven Testing Framework.
32) How will you check a web application for broken links using QTP?
You can use the Page Checkpoint which gives a count of valid/invalid links on a page.
33) What is a Run-Time Data Table? Where can I find and view this table?
Data like parameterized output , checkpoint values , output values are stored in the Run-time Table. It is an xls file which is stored in the Test Results Folder. It can also be accessed in the Test Fusion Report.
34) What is the difference between check point and output value.
Check point is a verification point that compares a current value for a specified property with the expected value for that property. Based on this comparison, it will generate a PASS or FAIL status.
An output value is a value captured during the test run and can be stored in a specified location like the Datable or even a variable. Unlike Checkpoints, no PASS/FAIL status is generated.
35) How would you connect to database using vbscript ?
To connect to the database you must know
a) connection string of your server
b) username
c) password
d) DNS name
You can code the database connectivity command directly or you can use the SQL Query tool provided by QTP.
36) What is QTP batch testing tool?
You can use the Batch testing tool to run multiple scripts. Once the scripts are added in the tool , it will automatically open the scripts and start executing them one after the other.
37) What are the drawbacks of QTP?
As of QTP version 10
1) Huge Tests in QTP consume lots of memory and increase CPU utilization.
2) Since QTP stores results in HTML file (and not txt) the result folder sometimes becomes big.
38) What is an Optional Step ?
A step when declared optional is not mandatory to be executed. If the corresponding GUI object is present, QTP performs the operation on it. If the GUI object is not present, QTP bypasses the optional step and proceeds to execute the next step.
39) What is Reporter.ReportEvent ?
Reporter.Reportvent is standard method provided by QTP to send custom messages to the test results window.
Reporter.ReportEvent EventStatus, ReportStepName, Details [, ImageFilePath]
EventStatus = 0 or micPass
1 or micFail
2 or micDone
3 or micWarning
Results can assume any status like Pass , Fail , Warning etc. You can also send screenshot to the test results window.
40) How will you declare a variable in QTP ?
You declare using a DIM keyword. You assign value to the variable using the SET keyword.
Dim temp ‘Will declare the temp variable
Set temp = 20 ‘ Will assign a value 20 to temp.
41) What is GetRoProperty ?
GetRoProperty is a standard method provided by QTP to fetch property values of a run -time object.
42) What is smart Identification?
Typically, if even one of the on-screen object property does not match the recorded object property. The test fails.
In smart identification, QTP does not give an error if the property values do not match, but uses Base filter and Optional Filter properties to uniquely identify an object. In Smart identification, if a property value does not match the script does not fail but it proceeds ahead to compare the next property. Smart identification can be enabled in Object Identification Dialog box.
43) How would you export a Script from one PC to another in QTP ?
We can make use of the “Generate Script” function available in Object Identification, Test Settings and Tools/Options tab to create a zip of the script at the source computer. These zip files then can be imported into QTP at the destination computer.
44) Can launch two instances of QTP on the same machine ?
No. You can work with only single instance of QTP on the same machine. But QTP itself can work on multiple instances of the Application Under Test (AUT). Ex: QTP can handle multiple IE browser windows.
45) Give the syntax to import/export xls into QTP.
DataTable.ImportSheet “..\..\TestData\Input.xls”,1,dtGlobalSheet
DataTable.ExportSheet “..\..\Results\Output.xls”,”Global”
46) What is SetToProperty ?
SetToProperty changes property of an object stored in the Object Repository. However these changes are not permanent.
47) What is the standard timing delay for web based application in QTP ?
The standard delay is 60 seconds. This is can be changed in Test Settigns.
48) What is the Action Conversion Tool ?
It is an in-built tool provided by QTP to convert Actions into Business Process Components.
49) What is the extension for a function library ?
The extension is ‘.QFL’
50) If the Global Data sheet contains no data and the Local Datasheet contains two rows of data, how many times will the test iterate?
The test will iterate only once – global iteration.
51) Explain how to read registry key in UFT ?
The example demonstrated here explains how to read registry key in UFT
‘Create a shell object

Set MyShell= CreateObject (“WScript.Shell”)

Read the value of key from the registry

RegValue =MyShell.RegRead (varpathofkey)

‘in above function we have to pass the path of key in registery’.

e.g. HKCU\software\ie\settings

msgbox RegValue
52) What are the ways in UFT to get system environment variables in UFT?
There are three ways to get system environment variables in UFT
Use the WSH shell object
• Use WMI’s Win32_Environment Class
• Read variables from the registry
Set myShell = CreateObject (“WScript.Shell”)

WScript.Echo myShell.ExpandEnvironmentStrings( “%PATHEXT%” )

The output will be .BAT;.CMD;.VBS;. VBE;. JS;. JSE
Other user variable, like TEMP, overwrite their system counterpart
Set myShell = CreateObject( “WScript.Shell” )

WScript.Echo myShell.ExpandEnvironmentStrings( “TEMP=%TEMP%” )

The output will be
53) Mention the steps required in UFT to send mail from outlook?
To send mail from outlook in UFT,
Set Outlook = CreateObject (“Outlook.Application”)
Dim Message ‘As Outlook.MailItem
Set Message = Outlook.CreateItem(olMailItem)
With Message
.Subject = Subject
.HTMLBody = TextBody
.Recipients.Add (aTo)
Const olOriginator = 0
End With
54) Explain how you can fetch data from database in UFT?
To fetch data from database in UFT, you have to follow the code below
Set db= createobject (“ADODB.Connection”)
db.Open “Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=G:\guru99\vb6\admission_project.mdb;
Persist Security Info= False”
Set rst=createobject(“ADODB.Recordset”)
rst.Open “select*from Course”, db, 3
id=rst. RecordCount
For i=0 to id-1
Print rst.field (0) & rst.fields (1) & rst.fields (2) & rst.fields (3)
55) What are the codes we can use to get files from ftp server in UFT?
To get ftp files from ftp server, you have to use below code
a) put- To store single file on server
b) get- To download single file from ftp server
c) mget- To download multiple files from server
d) mput- To store multiple files on server
e) delete- To delete files on ftp server
MyShell.Run “%comspec% /c FTP -n -s:” & commandstoworkwithftp & ” ” & Site, 0,True
56) In UFT how you can prevent the system from getting locked?
To prevent system getting locked, any of the two ways can be used
• Create a simple vbs file having code to press numlock key and run that vbs file
• Edit one registry key “DisableLockWorkstation =1” to disable locking
57) What is descriptive programming in UFT means?
Descriptive programming includes property name and property value. Whenever UFT is facing difficulty in identifying objects from object repository, and instead the object is directly identified from the script is known as descriptive programming.
58) In UFT explain the difference between qfl and vbs files?
a) qfl is quick test function library file while vbs is Microsoft’s vbscript
b) qfl is a non-executable file while vbs is an executable file
c) To use file in UFT associate qfl file from test setting, while to include vbs file use “execute file statement”
59) What is the code to write data to text file in UFT?
To write data to text file in UFT code is
Content = “rvhtech Rocks”
Set Fo = createobject (“Scripting.FilesystemObject”)
Set f = Fo.openTextFile (“c:\myFile.txt”,8,true) ‘ open in write mode
f.Write (contents)
Set f = nothing
60) How to write data to excel file in UFT?
Code to write data to excel file in UFT is
filepath = “C:\Bugs\Reports.xlsx”
Set objExcel = CreateObject(“Excel.Application”)
objExcel.Visible= True
Set Wb= objExcel.Workbooks.Open (filepath)
Wb.worksheets(1).Cells(1,1).Value = “rvhtech” read value from Excel file
61) How to create TSR file in UFT?
TSR means Test Shared Repository, it is created to share object repository.
To create TSR file, follow the steps
• Open object repository
• Go to file menu
• Go to export local objects option and select it
After that, UFT will ask you to store .tsr file. Give the path and save. This will create .tsr file in UFT
62) How to connect to QC in UFT?
To connect with QC, UFT provides the option to connect QC directly from UFT GUI.
a) Go to file menu
b) Select (QC) quality center
c) You will be asked to – Enter QC url
d) Enter user id, password and project
Following above steps will allow you to connect with QC, later on you can execute the tests from QC itself.
63) What are the types of Automation Framework in UFT?
In order to ease the process of test automation using UFT, test automation is designed. There are mainly three types of automation frameworks in UFT
• Keyword Driven Framework: It is used when multiple functionality needs to be tested.
• Data Driven Framework: It is used to test same flow with different test data, test data is given more importance than multiple functionality of application
• Hybrid Framework: It is a combination of data driven framework and keyword.
64) When we should use descriptive programming in UFT ?
Either through object repository or description programming, UFT identifies objects. Descriptive programming is used in following scenarios
a) It is used to remove duplicate objects. Same objects exists in different screens or windows of your application. If you use OR in this case you have to store same object under different object hierarchy in OR. To deal with such situation, descriptive
programming is used
b) It is not appropriate in certain scenarios to store the objects inside OR (Object Repository). Suppose if you want to print 100 links on the page, you should not store all links in OR. Instead you should use Description Programming to access those links.
65) What is “settoproperty” and when to use it in UFT?
Settoproperty stands for set test object property. You can use this property to change the object values at runtime. You can edit the property values during the runtime, but the changes that are made are temporary.
66) How to create an array of dictionary in UFT?
We can create an array of dictionary using syntax
Dim ArrayofDictionary(2)
First element of array
Set ArrayofDictionary(0)= createobject(“scripting.dictionary”)
ArrayofDictionary(0).Add “key1”, “temp1”
ArrayofDictionary(0).Add “key2”, “temp2”
Added keys in first dictionary
Second element of array as dictionary
Set ArrayofDictionary(1)= createobject(“scripting.dictionary”)
ArrayofDictionary(1).Add “key1”, “temp1”
ArrayofDictionary(1).Add “key2”, “temp2”
Added keys in second dictionary…..and so on
67) What is the difference between “Array” and “Dictionary”?
Array Dictionary
• Dynamic array is possible • There is no concept of dynamic dictionary
• Size of array must be set before the use of array • The size of dictionary do not need to be set
• We have to use redim statement before adding extra element into dynamic array • To add extra element there is no need to write any statement. We just use add method
• There is no particular method to release the memory if particular element is not required • Element which is not required any longer can be removed from the dictionary
68) What is round function in UFT?
Round function in UFT is used to round the decimal
For example
Mydecimal = 6.3433333
Roundedvalue= Round(Mydecimal , 3)
Print roundedvalue, it will print 6.343
69) How to find the total number of rows in the webtable in UFT?
There are three ways which we can find the count of rows in the table in UFT
a) Using rowcount property of UFT webtable object
b) Using GetROProperty of UFT
c) Using HTML DOM + UFT
70) How to create excel file in UFT ?
steps will create excel file in UFT,
‘Create a new Microsoft Excel object
Set myExcel = createobject(“excel.application”)
‘To make Excel visible
myExcel.Application.Visible = true
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Cells(1,1). Value = “Scenario Id”
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Cells(1,2).Value = “Scenario Name”
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(1).ColumnWidth = 10
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(2).ColumnWidth = 40
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(3).ColumnWidth = 20
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(4).ColumnWidth = 20
MyExcel.SaveAs “c:\guru99.xlsx”
blnFlag = False
71) Explain in what ways we can export datatable to excel in UFT?
To export data-table to excel, there are two methods.
a) DataTable.Export (“C:\export.xls”)
b) DataTable.ExportSheet “C:\mysheet.xls” ( If excel file does not exist, new file is created)
73) In datatable sheet in UFT, how to read a value from the cell?
To read a value from the cell, we follow 2 step process
a) We set the row pointer in first step
b) In second step we define the parameter/column name from the sheet to read
For this example, we have set the row pointer to 2 in transaction sheet
Now, we have to specify that we want to read a value from the module_name column from the transaction sheet
Print datatable.Value (“Module_Name, “Transactions”)
74) What are the loops available in UFT and what they do?
There are 3 loops available in UFT
a) Do…..Loop : Do Loop will run a block of statements repeatedly
b) For…..Next : For Next Loop will execute a series of statements until a specific counter value
c) For……Each : In order to execute a series of statements for each statements for each object in collection “For Each Loop” is used
While….Wend Loop : While Wend Loop is used to execute a series of statements as long as given condition is true
75) What are the types of error need to be handle in UFT?
There are three types of error that one will face in UFT
a) Syntax Errors
b) Logical Errors
c) Runtime Errors

76) What is the difference between exitaction and exititeration?
Exitaction is used when we want to exit from a particular action, while exititeration is used to exit from a particular action iteration of an action.
77) In QTP how you can remove the spaces from string?
You can use replace function to remove spaces from string in QTP
Print replace(“ sdsd sd sd s “, “ “,”””)
Output will be sdsdsdsds
Itrim function can be used if only leading spaces from string needs to be removed
Print Itrim(“ sdsd sd s “) à Output will be “sdsd sd s”
You can use rtrim function to remove trailing spaces from string
Print rtrim(“ sdsd sd s ” ) à Output will be “ sdsd sd s”
78) In QTP how you can get the last character from a string?
Code to get the last character of a string in QTP
print right( “junior,1) ‘ à Output will be “r”
79) How to add synchronisation points in QTP?
There are 4 ways through which we can add synchronisation points in QTP
a) Wait statement : This statement will pause the execution for x seconds until object comes up
b) Wait property : This method will wait until property of object takes particular value
c) Exist statement : This statement will wait until object becomes available
d) Sync method: The code will wait until browser page is completely loaded. For web application testing this method is used.
80) In QTP explain what is crypt object
Crypt object in QTP is used to encrypt a strings.
Example :
In this example, value in pwd variable is encrypted using the Crypt. Encrypt method.
Then this encrypted value is entered into editbox.
pwd= “myvalue”
pwd = Crypt.Encrypt (pwd)
Browser(“myb”).WinEdit (“pwd”). SetSecure pwd
81) Mention what is the difference between Excecute file and loadfunction library ?
In execute file, we can’t debug the statements. With loadfunction library, statements can be debug and can also load multiple library files.
82) Explain how you can find length of array in QTP?
The code to find the length of array in QTP is
print (ubound(arr)+1)
Ubound returns the last index in array- so length of array will be +1. This will be total number of elements in array
83) Mention what are the different types of recording modes in QTP? Which will be used when?
QTP supports 3 types of recording modes
a) Normal mode : It is the default recording mode and used for most of the automation activities. Regardless of their position on screen it recognizes objects.
b) Low level recording mode: It is useful for recording objects not identified by normal mode of QTP. It records the exact x,y coordinates of your mouse operations.
c) Analog mode: This mode is useful for the operation such as recording signature, drawing a picture, drag and drop operation.
84) In what ways you can call from one action to another action?
There are two ways you can call from one action to another action
a) Call to copy of action: In this, the script and data-table, action object repository will be copied to the destination Test Script
b) Call to existing Action: In this, script data-table and object repository are not copied instead a call reference would be made to the action in the source script
85) What is Optional step in QTP ? How you can add optional step in QTP?
When running a test, it test fails in opening a dialog box, QTP does not necessarily abort the test run. It bye passes any step designated “optional” and continues running the test. By default QTP automatically marks as optional steps that open certain dialog boxes. In order to set an optional step in the keyword, right click and select “Optional Step”. The icon for optional step would be added in next step. In the expert view to add optional step, add optional step to the beginning of the VBScript statement.
86) How to define array in QTP?
Array can be defined in 3 ways in QTP
a) Fixed size array in QTP
Dim A (10) – single dimension
Dim MyTable (5,10) – multi-dimension
b) Dynamic array-size not fixed
Dim MyArray()ReDim MyArray(25)
c) Using Array Function in QTP
A= Array (10, 20,30)
B= A(2) ‘ B is now 30
87) How you can write contexts to text file in QTP?
Content = “Guru99”
Set Fo = createobject(“Scripting.FilesystemObject”)
Set f =Fo.openTextFile(“c:\abc.txt”, 8,true)
f.Write (contents)
Set f= nothing
88) When ‘option explicit’ keyword is used in QTP?
To specify that all variable must be declared before use in QTP, ‘Option Explicit’ keyword is used.
89) In QTP how you can exit for loop?
You must use “Exit For” statement to exit “for loop” in QTP. “Exit For” statement will get the control out of the “for loop”
For count= 1 to 3
TempNum= mid(Tempstr,count,1)
If isnumeric(TempNum) Then
LenghtNum = LengthNum & TempNum
Exit For
End If
GetStrLenNumber = LengthNum
90) How to find array size in QTP?
Size of an array in QTP will be found by using the following code
Print (ubound(arr)+1)
Ubound returns the last index in array- so size of array will be +1
91) In QTP, explain what is qrs file?
qrs means “Quicktest Recovery Scenario”. By using recovery scenario manager we can handle exceptions in test execution.In QTP using recovery scenario manager we can handle exceptions in test execution. In QTP when you create a recovery scenario, you must save it in .qrs file. qrs file may have any number of scenarios defined in it.
92) What is the significance of “action 0” in QTP?
“Action 0” is created by default when you create a new test in QTP along with action 1. To determine the sequence in which we call other actions 1,2,3 etc. action 0 is used.
93) Explain how you can replace string in QTP?
To replace part of string in QTP we will use the code as shown below
Str = (rvhtech99)
Suppose if you want to replace “99” with “88” then the code will
print replace(str,“99”, “88”) output will be rvhtech88”
94) What are the various automation frameworks available in QTP?
Various types of automation frameworks available in QTP are
a) Linear Scripting
b) The Test Library Architecture Framework
c) The Data Driven Testing Framework
d) The Keyword Driven or Table Driven Testing Framework
e) The Hybrid Test Automation Framework
95) What is ‘Object Spy’ and what is the function of object spy in QTP?
‘Object Spy’ is a feature in QTP by using which you can view both the test and run time object properties and methods.
96) What is “GetROProperty” and what are the steps involved in using GetROProperty?
“GetROProperty” is an in built method used to retrieve runtime value of an object property.
To use GetRoProperty it involves four steps
a) Record the object on which you want to use the GetROProperty in Object Repository
b) Identify the run time property for the recorded object which could be used
c) To retrieve the identified run time property and store the value in a variable
d) Use this value for further deductions
97) Explain how you can find the absolute value of the number in QTP?
To find out the absolute value of a number a built in function in QTP is available
Example- a= -1
Print abs(a) ‘output will be 1
This code will find the absolute value of a number
98) How you can check if parameter exists in Datatable?
To check whether if parameter exists in data table we will use the code
on error resume next
val=DataTable(“ParamName”, dtGlobalSheet)
if err.number<>0 then
‘Parameter does not exist’
‘Parameter exists
end if
99) In QTP explain what is keyword driven automation framework?
In keyword driven automation framework, the focus is mainly on keywords/functions and not the test data. It means the complete focus is on creating functions which maps the functionality of the application.
100) In QTP how you can use Xpath to identify objects?
Xpath can be used to identify only web objects. We can use the following code to identify objects.
Set oPage=Browser(“myGoogle”).Page(“myGoogle”)
oPage.WebEdit(“xpath:=//INPUT[@name=‘nameofeditbox’]”).Set “search term”
‘Enter value in google edit box



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1. What is the difference between Performance testing and Performance engineering?
 In Performance testing, testing cycle includes requirement gathering, scripting, execution, result sharing and report generation. Performance Engineering is a step ahead of Performance testing where after execution; results are analyzed with the aim to find the performance bottlenecks and the solution is provided to resolve the identified issues.
2. Explain Performance Testing Life Cycle.
Step 1: System Analysis (Identification of critical transaction)
Virtual User Generator
Step 2: Creating Virtual User Scripts (Recording)
Step 3: Defining Users Behavior (Runtime setting)
LoadRunner Controller
Step 4: Creating Load Test Scenarios
Step 5: Running the Load Test Scenarios and Monitoring the Performance
LoadRunner Analysis
Step 6: Analyzing the Results
Refer Performance Testing Tutorial #2 for more details.
3. What is Performance testing?
Performance testing is done to evaluate application`s performance under load and stress conditions. It is generally measured in terms of response time of user’s action on application.
4. What is Load testing?
 Load testing is to determine if an application can work well with the heavy usage resulting from a large number of users using it simultaneously. Load is increased to to simulates the peak load that the servers are going to take during maximum usage periods.
5. What are the different components of LoadRunner?
The major components of LoadRunner are:
VUGen- Records Vuser scripts that emulate the actions of real users.
Controller – Administrative center for creating, maintaining and executing load test scenarios. Assigns scenarios to Vusers and load generators, starts and stops loading tests.
Load Generator – An agent through which we can generate load
Analysis – Provides graphs and reports that summarize the system performance
6. What is the Rendezvous point?
Rendezvous point helps in emulating heavy user load (request) on the server. This instructs Vusers to act simultaneously. When the vuser reaches the Rendezvous point, it waits for all Vusers with Rendezvous point. Once designated numbers of Vusers reaches it, the Vusers are released. Function lr_rendezvous is used to create the Rendezvous point. This can be inserted by:
1. Rendezvous button on the floating Recording toolbar while recording.
2. After recording Rendezvous point is inserted through Insert> Rendezvous.
7. What are the different sections of the script? In what sequence does these section runs?
 LoadRunner script has three sections vuser_init, Action and vuser_end.
vuser_init has requests/actions to login to the application/server.
Action has actual code to test the functionality of the application. This can be played many times in iterations.
Vuser_end has requests/actions to login out the application/server.
The sequence in which these sections get executed is vuser_init is at the very beginning and vuser_end at the very end. Action is executed in between the two.
8. How do you identify which protocol to use for any application?
Previously Performance tester had to depend much on the development team to know about the protocol that application is using to interact with the server. Sometimes, it also used to be speculative.
However, LoadRunner provides a great help in form of Protocol Advisor from version 9.5 onwards. Protocol advisor detects the protocols that application uses and suggest us the possible protocols in which script can be created to simulate the real user.
9. What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation?
 Correlation is used to handle the dynamic values in a script. The dynamic value could change for each user action (value changes when action is replayed by the same user) or for different users (value changes when action is replayed with different user). In both the cases correlation takes care of these values and prevents them from failing during execution.
Manual Correlation involves identifying the dynamic value, finding the first occurrence of dynamic value, identifying the unique boundaries of capturing the dynamic value, writing correlation function web_reg_save_param before the request having the first occurrence of dynamic value in its response.
Automated correlation works on predefined correlation rules. The script is played back and scanned for auto correlation on failing. Vugen identifies the place wherever the correlation rules work and correlate the value on approval.
Refer this tutorial for more details.
10. How to identify what to correlate and what to parameterize?
 Any value in the script that changes on each iteration or with different user while replaying needs correlation. Any user input while recording should be parametrized.
11. What is parameterization & why is parameterization necessary in the script?
Replacing hard coded values within the script with a parameter is called Parameterization. This helps a single virtual user (vuser) to use different data on each run. This simulates real life usage of application as it avoids server from caching results.
Refer this tutorial for more details.
12. How you identify Performance test use cases of any application?
Test cases/Uses cases for Performance test are almost same as any manual/functional testing test cases where each and every step performed by the user is written. The only difference is that all manual test cases can’t be Performance testing use cases as there are few criteria for the selection as:
I. The user activity should be related to critical and most important functionality of the application.
II. The user activity should be having good amount of database activity such as search, delete or insert.
III. The user activity should be having good user volume. The functionality having less user activity is generally omitted from Performance testing point of view. e.g admin account activity.
Any of the manual test cases that fulfill the above criteria can be used as performance testing use case/test case. If manual test cases are not written step by step , Performance team should create dedicated documents for them.
13. While scripting you created correlation rules for automatic correlation. If you want to share the correlation rules with your team member working on the same application so that he/she can use the same on his workstation, how will you do that?
 Correlation rules can be exported through .cor file and the same file can be imported through VuGen.
14. What are different types of vuser logs which can be used while scripting and execution? What is the difference between these logs? When you disable logging?
There are two types of Vuser logs available –Standard log and Extended log. Logs are key for debugging the script. Once a script is up and running, logging is enabled for errors only. Standard log creates a log of functions and messages sent to the server during script execution whereas Extended log contains additional of warnings and other messages. Logging is used during debugging and disabled while execution. Logging can be enabled for errors in that case.
15. What is Modular approach of scripting?
In Modular approach, a function is created for each request (e.g. login, logout, save, delete, etc.) and these functions are called wherever required. This approach gives more freedom to reuse the request and saves time. With this approach it is recommended to work with web custom request.
16. What are the different types goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario?
LoadRunner has five different types of goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario. These are:
• The number of concurrent Vusers
• The number of hits per second
• The number of transactions per second
• The number of pages per minute
• The transaction response time
17. How is each step validated in the script?
Each step in the script is validated with the content on the returned page. A content check verifies whether specific content is present on the web page or not. There are two types of content check which can be used in LoadRunner:
Text Check- This checks for a text/string on the web page
Image Check- This checks for an image on a web page.

18. How is VuGen script modified after recording?
Once the script is recorded, it can be modified with the following process:
Variable declarations
Rendezvous Point
Validations/Check point
19. What is Ramp up and Ramp Down?
Ramp up- Rate at which virtual users add to the load test
Ramp Down- Rate at which virtual users exit from the load test.
20. What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread?
Running vusers as thread helps generate more virtual users from any machine due to small memory print of the vuser running as thread.

21. What is wasted time in VuGen Replay log?
Waste time is never performed by any browser user and just the time spent on the activities which support the test analysis. These activities are related to logging, keeping record and custom analysis.
22. How do you enable text and image checks in VuGen?
 This can be done by using functions web_find (for text check) and web_image_check (for image check) and enabling image and text check from run time setting.
Run Time Setting–>Preference–>Enable the Image and text check box.
23. What is the difference between web_reg_find and web_find?
web_reg_find function is processed before the request sent and is placed before the request in the VuGen script whereas web_find function is processed after the response of the request come and is placed after the request in VuGen script.
24. What are the challenges that you will face to script the step “Select All” and then “Delete” for any mail account?
 In this case the post for “Select All” and “Delete” will change every time depending on the number mails available. For this the recorded request for the two should be replaced with custom request and string building is required to build the post. (Note- This question needs practical knowledge. So please this practically and formulate your answer).
25. What is difference between pacing and think time?
Pacing is wait time between the action iterations whereas think time is wait time between the transactions.
26. What are the number of graphs you can monitor using Controller at a time? What is the max of them?
One, two, four and eight graphs can be seen at a time. The maximum number of graphs can be monitored in at a time is 8.
27. You have an application which shows the exam results of the student. Corresponding to name of each student its mentioned whether he passed or failed the exam with the label of “Pass” and “Fail”. How will you identify the number of passed and failed student in VuGen script?
For this text check is used for the web page for the text “Pass and “Fail”. Through the function web_reg_find, we can capture the number of texts found on the web page with the help of “SaveCount”. SaveCount stored the number of matches found. For example-
1 web_reg_find(“Text=Pass”,
2 “SaveCount=Pass_Student”,
3 LAST);
4 web_reg_find(“Text=Fail”,
5 “SaveCount=Fail_Student”,
6 LAST);
28. During the load test what is the optimum setting for Logs?
For the load test log level is set to minimal. This can be achieved with setting the log level to the standard log and selecting the radio button “Send message only when an error occurs”.
29. How will you handle the situation in scripting where for your mailbox you have to select any one mail randomly to read?
For this we will record the script for reading the first mail. Try to find what is being posted in the request to read the first mail such as mail ids or row no. From the post where a list of mails is reflecting, we will try to capture all the email ids row no with correlation function and keeping Ordinal as All i.e. ORD=All . Replace the requested email id in the read post with any of the randomly selected email id from the list of captured email ids.
Refer this Scripting Tutorial.
30. What is the Think Time? What is the Threshold level for think time and how can be this changed?
Think time is the wait time inserted intentionally between the actions in the script to emulate real user`s wait time while performing activity on the application. The Threshold level for Think time in the level below which recorded think time will be ignored. This can be changed from Recorded options->Script->Generate think time greater than threshold.
31. How is Automated Correlation configured?
Any setting related to Automated Correlation can be done byGeneral Options->Correlation. Correlation rules are set fromRecording options->Correlations.
32. How you decide the number of load generator machine required to run a test?
Number of load generator required totally depends on the protocol used to create the script and configuration of the load generator machine. Each protocol has different memory print and this decides how many virtual users can be generated from the give configuration of the machine (load generator).
33. What are the capabilities exactly you look for while selecting the performance testing tool?
 Performance testing tool should capable of:-
• Testing an application built using multiple technologies and hardware platforms.
• Determine the suitability of a server for testing the application
• Testing an application with load of tens, thousand and even thousands virtual users.
34. How concurrent users are differing from simultaneous users?
 All simultaneous users are concurrent users but vice versa is not true.
All the vusers in the running scenario are Concurrent users as they are using the same application at the same time but may be or may not be doing the same tasks. Simultaneous users perform the same task at the same time. Concurrent users are made Simultaneous users through rendezvous points. Rendezvous points instruct the system to wait till a certain number of vusers arrive so that they all can do a particular task simultaneously.
35. How do you identify which values need to be correlated in the script? Give an example.
This can be done in ways:
a) Record the two scripts with similar steps and compare them using WDiff utility. (See tutorial Correlation).
b) Replay the recorded script and scan for correlation. This gives a list of values that can be correlated.
Session Id is a good example of this. When two scripts are recorded and compared using WDiff utility. Session ids in the two scripts should be different and WDiff highlight these values.
36. How does caching affect performance testing results?
 When data is cached in server`s memory, the server need not fetch the result and no server activity triggered. Test result does not reflect the same performance of real user using the application with different data.
37. How will you stop the execution of script on error?
This can be achieved through lr_abort function. The function instructs the vuser to stop executing Action section and end the execution by executing the vuser_end section. This function is helpful in handling a specific error. This can also be used to handle a situation rather than error where execution is not possible. The function assigned “Stopped” status to the vuser which stopped due to lr_abort function. In Run-Time setting, “Continue on error” should be unchecked.
38. What is load testing?
Load testing is to test that if the application works well with the loads from large number of simultaneous users and transactions. It also used to determine whether it can handle peak usage periods.
39. What is load runner?
Load Runner is a performance testing tool from HP. This tool supports all aspects such as Load, Stress, Endurance, data volume and spike Testing.
40. What are all the components of LoadRunner?
Following are the components of LoadRunner
• The Virtual User Generator
• Controller, and the Agent process
• LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring
• LoadRunner Books Online
41. What Component of LoadRunner is used to record a script?
The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script and it enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.
42. What is a rendezvous point?
Rendezvous points are introduced into Vuser scripts to simulate more users on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution in order to perform the tasks simultaneously.
For example, in a banking application, Rendezvous points are inserted for 100+ multiple users to deposit money simultaneously.
43. What is a scenario?
A scenario is nothing but an event that occurs for each testing session.
For example, a scenario defines
• Number of users
• Action to be performed
• Virtual machines system
44. How can we debug a LoadRunner script?
VuGen contains two options to debug Vuser scripts
• Run Step by Step command and
• Breakpoints.
We can also manually set the message class within your script using the lr_set_debug_message function.
45. How can we perform functional testing under load?
Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the Vusers, it is necessary to determine how much load the server can sustain.
46. What is the relationship between Response Time and Throughput?
The Throughput shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When It is compared with transaction response time, throughput and response time get decreased.
The peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.
47. What does vuser_init and vuser_end action contain?
Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server and Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.
48. What is the difference between standard log and extended log?
The standard log sends a subset of functions and messages to the output log and subset of functions depends on the Vuser type.
Extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. It is mainly used during debugging when user needs information about Parameter substitution.
49. What are all the types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario of Load Runner?
Load Runner provides you with five different types of goals:
• Number of concurrent Vusers
• Number of hits per second
• Number of transactions per second
• Number of pages per minute
• Transaction response time
50. What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script?
Web_reg_save_param is the function that saves dynamic data information to a parameter.
51. What are the Load Runner testing process?
Following are the testing process in LoadRunner:
• Plan load test
• Create Vuser Scripts
• Define Scenario
• Run Scenario
• Analyze results
52. What is remote command launcher?
The remote command launcher enables the controller to start applications in the host machine.
53. How can we develop the database vuser script?
Vuser scripts can be developed either by recording with the load vuser script generator or by using Load runner vuser script template.
54. How do you load a load runner Agent?
While running the scenario, loadrunner controller instructs the remote agent dispatcher to launch loadrunner agent. The controller instructs the loadrunner agent to initialize, run, pause and stop the vusers.
55. What is the difference between hits/second and requests/second?
Hits per second means the number of hits the server receives in one second from the vuser.
Request per second is the number of request the vuser will request from the server.
56. What are the advantages of load runner?
Following are the advantages of Load Runner:
• Reduces human intervention
• Reduces the requirement of the systems
• Helps in the better usage of time and money
• Effective utilization of automation
• Single point execution
57. What is the vuser in the scenario?
The vuser is the virtual users who can simulate the real users. The virtual users who take the place of real users’s operating client software, such as IE sending requests using the HTTP protocol to IIS or Apache web servers.
58. How do we write a user defined function in LoadRunner?
Use should create the external library that contains the function. This library must then be added to the bin directory of VuGen. And then, the user-defined function can be assigned as a parameter.
59. What are the changes that can be made to run-time settings?
There are four run-time settings that can be made:
• Pacing: This contains iteration count.
• Log: Logging can be set to standard or disabled.
• Think Time: Capable of setting think time to be ignored or replayed.
• General: Allows the setting of Vusers for processes or multithreading.
60. How can we find database related issues?
Monitors and the Data Resource Graph can be used to find database related issues. LoadRunner allow the tester to specify the resource that needs to be measured before the controller is run.
61. How many types of graphs are available in LoadRunner?
There are 5 types of graphs:
• Network delay time graph – displays the time that elapses between request and response
• Two transaction response time graphs – one transation response time graph for load and another one for percentile
• Hits/second graph – Shows application traffic volume
• Pages download/second graph – shows the rate at which pages are downloaded per second
62. How can performance bottlenecks can be identified?
Monitors can be used to detect performance bottlenecks. These include network, web server, application server, and database server monitors.
These monitors can be used to locate trouble spots in scenarios that cause increase in response time and throughput, network delays, performance response time, hits/second, etc.
63. What is ramp up and how it can be set?
Ramp up is gradually increasing the load on a server and can be simulated by gradually increasing the number of Vusers. This feature can be found in the Scenario Scheduling Options.
64. How correlation can be performed?
Correlation can be performed in two ways:
• Use the scan function to search for correlations and select a value from the result.
• Record a pair of scripts and then compare them to each other.
65. Where are automatic correlation options set?
The automatic correlation is set in recording options area on the correlation tab. Correlation can be enabled for the full script and rules for correlation can be defined.
Automatic correlation can be performed on a database by viewing the output window, scanning for correlation, and selecting the value that will be used.


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Testing Tools Interview Questions

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1) What is Test Bed?
An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds(s) to be used.

2) What is Test Case?
Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc. A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. Test Driven Development? Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.

3) What is Test Driver?
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.

4) What is Test Environment?
The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.

5) What is Test First Design?
Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.

6) What is Test Harness?
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Driver.

7) What is Test Plan?
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.

8) What is Test Procedure?
A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.

9) What is Test Script?
Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.

10) What is Test Specification?
A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.

11) What is Test Suite?
A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.

12) What is Test Tools?
Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.

13) What is Thread Testing?
A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

14) What is Top Down Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.

15) What is Total Quality Management?
A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction.

16) What is Traceability Matrix?
A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.

17) What is Usability Testing?
Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.

18) What is Use Case?
The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.

19) What is Unit Testing?
Testing of individual software components.

20) What is Validation?
The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing.

21) What is Verification?
The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing.

22) What is White Box Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing and Glass Box Testing. Contrast with Black Box Testing. White box testing is used to test the internal logic of the code for ex checking whether the path has been executed once, checking whether the branches has been executed atleast once …..Used to check the structure of the code.

23)What is Workflow Testing?
Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user.

24) What’s the difference between load and stress testing ?
One of the most common, but unfortunate misuse of terminology is treating “load testing” and “stress testing” as synonymous. The consequence of this ignorant semantic abuse is usually that the system is neither properly “load tested” nor subjected to a meaningful stress test. Stress testing is subjecting a system to an unreasonable load while denying it the resources (e.g., RAM, disc, mips, interrupts, etc.) needed to process that load. The idea is to stress a system to the breaking point in order to find bugs that will make that break potentially harmful. The system is not expected to process the overload without adequate resources, but to behave (e.g., fail) in a decent manner (e.g., not corrupting or losing data). Bugs and failure modes discovered under stress testing may or may not be repaired depending on the application, the failure mode, consequences, etc. The load (incoming transaction stream) in stress testing is often deliberately distorted so as to force the system into resource depletion. Load testing is subjecting a system to a statistically representative (usually) load. The two main reasons for using such loads is in support of software reliability testing and in performance testing. The term ‘load testing’ by itself is too vague and imprecise to warrant use. For example, do you mean representative load,’ ‘overload,’ ‘high load,’ etc. In performance testing, load is varied from a minimum (zero) to the maximum level the system can sustain without running out of resources or having, transactions >suffer (application-specific) excessive delay. A third use of the term is as a test whose objective is to determine the maximum sustainable load the system can handle. In this usage, ‘load testing’ is merely testing at the highest transaction arrival rate in performance testing.

25)What’s the difference between QA and testing?
QA is more a preventive thing, ensuring quality in the company and therefore the product rather than just testing the product for software bugs? TESTING means ‘quality control’ QUALITY CONTROL measures the quality of a product QUALITY ASSURANCE measures the quality of processes used to create a quality product.

26) What is the best tester to developer ratio?
Reported tester: developer ratios range from 10:1 to 1:10. There’s no simple answer. It depends on so many things, Amount of reused code, number and type of interfaces, platform, quality goals, etc. It also can depend on the development model. The more specs, the less testers. The roles can play a big part also. Does QA own beta? Do you include process auditors or planning activities? These figures can all vary very widely depending on how you define ‘tester’ and ‘developer’. In some organizations, a ‘tester’ is anyone who happens to be testing software at the time — such as their own. In other organizations, a ‘tester’ is only a member of an independent test group. It is better to ask about the test labor content than it is to ask about the tester/developer ratio. The test labor content, across most applications is generally accepted as 50%, when people do honest accounting. For life-critical software, this can go up to 80%.

27)How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization?
– A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects, serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. – Where the risk is lower, management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower, step-at-a-time process. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. – For small groups or projects, a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate, depending on the type of customers and projects. A lot will depend on team leads or managers, feedback to developers, and ensuring adequate communications among customers, managers, developers, and testers. – In all cases the most value for effort will be in requirements management processes, with a goal of clear, complete, testable requirement specifications or expectations.

28) What are 5 common problems in the software development process?
1. poor requirements – if requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable, there will be problems. 2. unrealistic schedule – if too much work is crammed in too little time, problems are inevitable. 3. inadequate testing – no one will know whether or not the program is any good until the customer complains or systems crash. 4. features – requests to pile on new features after development is underway; extremely common. 5. miscommunication – if developers don’t know what’s needed or customer’s have erroneous expectations, problems are guaranteed.

29)What are 5 common solutions to software development problems?
1. solid requirements – clear, complete, detailed, cohesive, attainable, testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. 2. realistic schedules – allow adequate time for planning, design, testing, bug fixing, re-testing, changes, and documentation; personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. 3. adequate testing – start testing early on, re-test after fixes or changes, plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. 4. stick to initial requirements as much as possible – be prepared to defend against changes and additions once development has begun, and be prepared to explain consequences. If changes are necessary, they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. If possible, use rapid prototyping during the design phase so that customers can see what to expect. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize changes later on. 5. communication – require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate; make extensive use of group communication tools – e-mail, groupware, networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools, intranet capabilities, etc.; insure that documentation is available and up-to-date – preferably electronic, not paper; promote teamwork and cooperation; use prototypes early on so that customers’ expectations are clarified.

30) What is ‘good code’?
‘Good code’ is code that works, is bug free, and is readable and maintainable. Some organizations have coding ‘standards’ that all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about what’s best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are also various theories and metrics, such as McCabe Complexity metrics. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. ‘Peer reviews’, ‘buddy checks’ code analysis tools, etc. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. For C and C++ coding, here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards; these may or may not apply to a particular situation: – minimize or eliminate use of global variables. – use descriptive function and method names – use both upper and lower case, avoid abbreviations, use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line); be consistent in naming conventions. – use descriptive variable names – use both upper and lower case, avoid abbreviations, use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line); be consistent in naming conventions. – function and method sizes should be minimized; less than 100 lines of code is good, less than 50 lines is preferable. – function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function’s code.- organize code for readability. – use whitespace generously – vertically and horizontally – each line of code should contain 70 characters max. – one code statement per line. – coding style should be consistent throughout a program (eg, use of brackets, indentations, naming conventions, etc.) – in adding comments, err on the side of too many rather than too few comments; a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. – no matter how small, an application should include documentation of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than nothing); or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. – make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. – for C++, to minimize complexity and increase maintainability, avoid too many levels of inheritance in class hierarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). Minimize use of multiple inheritance, and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.) – for C++, keep class methods small, less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. – for C++, make liberal use of exception handlers

31) What is ‘good design’?
‘Design’ could refer to many things, but often refers to ‘functional design’ or ‘internal design’. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable, and maintainable; is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability; and works correctly when implemented. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. For programs that have a user interface, it’s often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help; some common rules-of-thumb include: – the program should act in a way that least surprises the user – it should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit – the program shouldn’t let the users do something stupid without warning them.

32) What makes a good test engineer?
A good test engineer has a ‘test to break’ attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers, and an ability to communicate with both technical (developers) and non-technical (customers, management) people is useful. Previous software development experience can be helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software development process, gives the tester an appreciation for the developers’ point of view, and reduce the learning curve in automated test tool programming. Judgment skills are needed to assess high-risk areas of an application on which to focus testing efforts when time is limited.
33) What is Acceptance Testing?
Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.

34) What is Accessibility Testing?
Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).

35) What is Ad Hoc Testing?
A testing phase where the tester tries to ‘break’ the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. Can include negative testing as well. See also Monkey Testing.

36) What is Agile Testing?
Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.

37) What is Application Binary Interface (ABI)?
A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.

38) What is Application Programming Interface (API)?
A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.

39) What is Automated Software Quality (ASQ)?
The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.

40) What is Automated Testing?
Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.

41) What is Backus-Naur Form?
A metalanguage used to formally describe the syntax of a language.

42) What is Basic Block?
A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.

43) What is Basis Path Testing?
A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.

44) What is Basis Set?
The set of tests derived using basis path testing.

45) What is Baseline?
The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.

46) What you will do during the first day of job?
What would you like to do five years from now?

47) What is Beta Testing?
Testing of a release of a software product conducted by customers.

48) What is Binary Portability Testing?
Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.

49) What is Black Box Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.

50) What is Bottom Up Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

51) What is Boundary Testing?
Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).

52) What is Bug?
A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.

53) What is Defect?
If software misses some feature or function from what is there in requirement it is called as defect.

54) What is Boundary Value Analysis?
BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on “corner cases” or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. his means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.

55) What is Branch Testing?
Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.

56)  What is Breadth Testing?
A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.

57) What is CAST?
Computer Aided Software Testing.

58) What is Capture/Replay Tool?
A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.

59) What is CMM?
The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.

60) What is Cause Effect Graph?
A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.

61) What is Code Complete?
Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.

62) What is Code Coverage?
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.

63) What is Code Inspection?
A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.

64) What is Code Walkthrough?
A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer’s logic and assumptions.

65) What is Coding?
The generation of source code.

66) What is Compatibility Testing?
Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.

67) What is Component?
A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available.

68) What is Component Testing?
Testing of individual software components (Unit Testing).

69) What is Concurrency Testing?
Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.

70)What is Conformance Testing?
The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.

71) What is Context Driven Testing?
The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.

72) What is Conversion Testing?
Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.

73) What is Cyclomatic Complexity?
A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.

74) What is Data Dictionary?
A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.

75) What is Data Flow Diagram?
A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.

76) What is Data Driven Testing?
Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.

77) What is Debugging?
The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.

78) What is Defect?
Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification

79) What is Dependency Testing?
Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.

80) What is Depth Testing?
A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.

81)What is Dynamic Testing?
Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.

82) What is Emulator?
A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.

83) What is Endurance Testing?
Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

84) What is End-to-End testing?
Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

85) What is Equivalence Class?
A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.

86) What is Equivalence Partitioning?
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.

87) What is Exhaustive Testing?
Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.

88) What is Functional Decomposition?
A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.

89)  What is Functional Specification?
A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.

90) What is Functional Testing?
Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications. Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. or Black Box Testing.

91) What is Glass Box Testing?
A synonym for White Box Testing.

92) What is Gorilla Testing?
Testing one particular module, functionality heavily.

93) What is Gray Box Testing?
A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies? testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.

94) What is High Order Tests?
Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.

95) What is Independent Test Group (ITG)?
A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing,

96) What is Inspection?
A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).

97) What is Integration Testing?
Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

98) What is Installation Testing?
Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

99) What is Load Testing?
See Performance Testing.

100) What is Localization Testing?
This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.

101) What is Loop Testing?
A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.

102) What is Metric?
A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.

103) What is Monkey Testing?
Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.

104) What is Negative Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”. See also Positive Testing.

105) What is Path Testing?
Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.

106) What is Performance Testing?
Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as “Load Testing”.

107) What is Positive Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”. See also Negative Testing.

108) What is Quality Assurance?
All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

QTP & QC Interview Questions


Top most important QTP & QC interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important QTP & QC interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download QTP & QC interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these QTP & QC interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

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Manual Testing Interview Questions

Top most important Manual Testing interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important Manual Testing interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download Manual Testing interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these Manual Testing interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

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1) What is Test Harness?
A test harness is a collection of software and test data required to test the application by running it in different testing condition like stress, load, data- driven, and monitoring its behavior and outputs. Test Harness contains two main parts:

– Test execution engine
– Test script repository

Automation testing is the use of a tool to control the execution of tests and compare the actual results with the expected results. It also involves the setting up of test pre-conditions.
2) Explain Statement coverage.
Statement Coverage is a metric used in White Box Testing. Statement coverage is used to ensure that all the statement in the program code is executed at least once. The advantages of Statement Coverage are:

– Verifies that written code is correct.
– Measures the quality of code written.
– Determine the control flow of the program.
– To Calculate Statement Coverage:
– Statement Coverage = Statements Tested / Total No. of Statements.

3) What are the types of testing?
There are two types of testing:

– Static testing: Static testing is a technique used in the earlier phase of the development life cycle. The code error detection and execution of program is not concern in this type of testing. Also known as non-execution technique. The Verification of the product is performed in this testing technique like Code Reviews, Inspections, Walkthroughs are mostly done in this stage of testing.

– Dynamic testing: Dynamic Testing is concern with the execution of the software. This technique is used to test the dynamic behavior of the code. Most of the bugs are identified using this technique. These are the Validation activities. It uses different methodologies to perform testing like Unit Tests, Integration Tests, System Tests and Acceptance Testing, etc.

4) Explain User acceptance testing.
User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is performed by the end users on the applications before accepting the application.

Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed for the Beta testing phase, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.

Beta testing: is performed by the end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.

Gamma Testing: Gamma Testing is done when the software is ready for release with specified requirements. This testing is done directly by skipping all the in-house testing activities.

5) What should be done after a bug is found?
After finding the bug the first step is bug to be locked in bug report. Then this bug needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the bug is fixes by the developer, fixes should be re-tested, and determinations made regarding requirements for regression testing to check that fixes didn’t create problems elsewhere.

6) What if the software is so buggy it can’t really be tested at all?
In this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting of bugs with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process project managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation.

7) What are the types of maintenance?
There are four types of maintenance. They are:

– Corrective Maintenance
– Adaptive Maintenance
– Perfective Maintenance
– Preventive Maintenance

8) What are the advantages of waterfall model?
The advantages of the waterfall model are:

– Simple to implement and required fewer amounts of resources.
– After every phase output is generate.
– Help in methods of analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance.
– Preferred in projects where quality is more important than schedule and cost.
– Systematic and sequential model.
– Proper documentation of the project.

9) What is Rapid Application Development model (RAD)?
The RAD model Rapid Application development (RAD) is incremental software development process models that focus on the development of the project in very short time. It is enhanced version of Waterfall model. It is proposed when requirements and solutions can be made independently system or software components, which is developed by different teams. After these smaller system components are developed, they are integrated to produce the large software system solution.

10) What are the advantages of black box testing?
The advantages of this type of testing include:

– Developer and tester are independent of each other.
– The tester does not need knowledge of any programming languages.
– The test is done from the point-of-view of the user.
– Test cases can be designed when specifications are complete.
– Testing helps to identify issues related to functional specifications.

11) What is software review?
A software review can be defined as a filter for the software engineering process. The purpose of any review is to discover errors in the analysis, design, and coding, testing and implementation phases of the software development cycle. The other purpose of a review is to see whether procedures are applied uniformly and in a manageable manner. It is used to check the process followed to develop the software is right.

12) What is reverse engineering?
By analyzing a final product the process of recreating a design is known as reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is the process followed in order to find difficult, unknown, and hidden information about a software system. It is important when software products lack proper documentation, and are highly unstructured, or their structure has degraded through a series of maintenance efforts. Maintenance activities cannot be performed without a complete understanding of the software system.

13) What is data flow diagram?
The Data Flow Diagram gives us information of the flow of data within the application.

– The DFD can be used to analyze the design of the application.
– It is a graphical representation of the structure of the data.
– A developer draws context level DFD first showing interaction between the different components of the application.
– DFD help in developing the software by clarifying the requirements and major functionalities.
– DFDs show the flow of data through a system.
– It is an important modeling tool that allows us to picture a system as a network of functional processes.

14) What is exploratory testing?
Exploratory testing: means testing an application without a test plan and test script. In exploring testing test explore the application on the basis on his knowledge. The tester has no knowledge about the application previously. He explores the application like an end user and try to use it. While using the application his main motive is to find the bugs which are in the application.

15) What is compatibility testing?
Compatibility testing is a type of testing used to find out the compatibility between the application and platform on which application works, web browsers, hardware, operating systems etc. Good software must be compatible with different hardware, web browser and database.

16) What is SRS and BRS document?
Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is documented form of the requirement of the customer. It consists of all requirement of the customer regarding that software to be developed. The SRS document work as agreement between the company and the customer consisting of all functional and non functional requirements.

Business Requirement Specification (BRS) are the requirements as described by the business people. The business tells “what” they want for the application to do. In simple word BRS contain the functional requirement of the application.

17) Can you explain V model in manual testing?
V model: it is enhanced version of waterfall model where each level of the development lifecycle is verified before moving to next level. In this testing starts at the very beginning. By testing we mean verification by means of reviews and inspections, static testing. Each level of the development life – cycle has a corresponding test plan. A test plan is developed to prepare for the testing of the products of that phase. Be developing the test plans, we can also define the expected results for testing of the products for that level as well as defining the entry and exit criteria for each level.

18) What is Concurrency Testing?
Concurrency Testing is used to know the effects of using the software by different users at the same time. In this type of testing we have multiple users performing the exact same requests at the same time. It helps in identifying and measuring the problems in Response time, levels of locking and deadlocking in the application. For this we use Load runner to create VUGen (Virtual User Generator) is used to add the number of concurrent users and perform operation on the application on the same time.

19) What is an inspection in software testing?
An inspection is more formalized than a walkt hrough. Inspection technique involves 3 to 8 team member consisting of a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what is missing, most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. It is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality.
A Form has four mandatory fields to be entered before you Submit.

20) How many numbers of test cases are required to verify this? And what are they?
Five test cases are required to test:

1. Enter the data in all the mandatory fields and submit, should not display error message.
2. Enter data in any two mandatory fields and summit, should issue an error message.
3. Do not enter in any of the fields should issue an error message.
4. If the fields accept only number, enter numbers in the fields and submit, should not issue an error message, try to enter only in two fields should issue an error message, and enter alphabets in two fields and number in other two fields it should issue an error message.
5. If the fields do not accept special characters, then enter the characters and submit it.

21) What is Cyclomatic Complexity?
Cyclomatic complexity is used to measure the complexity of the software using the control flow graph of the software. It is a graphical representation, consisting of following:

NODE: statement of the program is taken as node of the graph.

Edges: the flow of command is denoted by edges. Edges are used to connect two node , this show flow of control from one node to other node in the program.

Using this node and edges we calculate the complexity of the program.
This determines the minimum number of inputs you need to test always to execute the program.

22) What is baseline testing?
Baseline testing is the process of running a set of tests to capture performance information. Baseline testing use the information collected to made the changes in the application to improve performance and capabilities of the application. Baseline compares present performance of application with its own previous performance.

23) What is benchmark testing?
Benchmarking testing is the process of comparing application performance with respect to industry standard which is given by some other organization. Benchmark informs us where our application stands with respect to others. Benchmark compares our application performance with other company’s application’s performance.

24) What is verification and validation?
Verification: process of evaluating work-products of a development phase to determine whether they meet the specified requirements for that phase.

Validation: process of evaluating software during or at the end of the development process to determine whether it specified requirements.

Difference between Verification and Validation:

– Verification is Static Testing where as Validations is Dynamic Testing.
– Verification takes place before validation.
– Verification evaluates plans, document, requirements and specification, where as Validation evaluates product.
– Verification inputs are checklist, issues list, walkthroughs and inspection ,where as in Validation testing of actual product.
– Verification output is set of document, plans, specification and requirement documents where as in Validation actual product is output.

25) Explain Branch Coverage and Decision Coverage.
– Branch Coverage is testing performed in order to ensure that every branch of the software is executed atleast. To perform the Branch coverage testing we take the help of the Control Flow Graph.

– Decision coverage testing ensures that every decision taking statement is executed atleast once.

– Both decision and branch coverage testing is done to ensure the tester that no branch and decision taking statement, will not lead to failure of the software.

– To Calculate Branch Coverage:
Branch Coverage = Tested Decision Outcomes / Total Decision Outcomes.

26) What is difference between Retesting and Regression testing?
The differences between Retesting and Regression testing are below:

– Retesting is done to verify defect fix previous in now working correctly where as regression is perform to check if the defect fix have not impacted other functionality that was working fine before doing changes in the code.

– Retesting is specific and is performed on the bug which is fixed where as in regression is not be always specific to any defect fix it is performed when any bug is fixed.

– Retesting concern with executing those test cases that are failed earlier where as regression concern with executing test cases that was passed in earlier builds.

– Retesting has higher priority over regression.

27) What is Mutation testing & when can it be done?
Mutation testing is a performed to find out the defect in the program. It is performed to find put bugs in specific module or component of the application. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions:

Competent programmer hypothesis: according this hypothesis we suppose that program write the correct code of the program.
Coupling effect: according to this effect collection of different set of test data can also find large and complex bugs.
In this testing we insert few bugs into program to examine the optimal test inputs.

28) What is severity and priority of bug? Give some example.
Priority: concern with application from the business point of view.

It answers:

29) How quickly we need to fix the bug? Or how soon the bug should get fixed?
Severity: concern with functionality of application.

30) How much the bug is affecting the functionality of the application?


1. High Priority and Low Severity:
If a company logo is not properly displayed on their website.

2. High Priority and High Severity:
Suppose you are doing online shopping and filled payment information, but after submitting the form, you get a message like “Order has been cancelled.”

3. Low Priority and High Severity:
If we have a typical scenario in which the application get crashed, but that scenario exists rarely.

4. Low Priority and Low Severity:
There is a mistake like “You have registered success” instead of successfully, success is written.

31) Explain bug leakage and bug release.
Bug Leakage: When customer or end user discovered a bug which can be detected by the testing team. Or when a bug is detected which can be detected in previous build then this is called as Bug Leakage.

Bug release: is when a build is handed to testing team with knowing that defect is present in the release. The priority and severity of bug is low. It is done when customer want the application on the time. Customer can tolerate the bug in the released then the delay in getting the application and the cost involved in removing that bug. These bugs are mentioned in the Release Notes handed to client for the future improvement chances.

32) What is alpha and beta testing?
Alpha testing: is performed by the IN-House developers. After alpha testing the software is handed over to software QA team, for additional testing in an environment that is similar to the client environment.

Beta testing: beta testing becomes active. It is performed by end user. So that they can make sure that the product is bug free or working as per the requirement. IN-house developers and software QA team perform alpha testing. The public, a few select prospective customers or the general public performs beta testing.

33) What is Monkey testing?
Monkey testing is a type of Black Box Testing used mostly at the Unit Level. In this tester enter the data in any format and check the software is not crashing. In this testing we use Smart monkey and Dumb monkey.

Smart monkeys are used for load and stress testing, they will help in finding the bugs. They are very expensive to develop.

Dumb monkey, are important for basic testing. They help in finding those bugs which are having high severity. Dumb monkey are less expensive as compare to Smart monkeys.

Example: In phone number filed Symbols are entered.

34) What is test driver and test stub?
– The Stub is called from the software component to be tested. It is used in top down approach.
– The driver calls a component to be tested. It is used in bottom up approach.
– Both test stub and test driver are dummy software components.

We need test stub and test driver because of following reason:

– Suppose we want to test the interface between modules A and B and we have developed only module A. So we cannot test module A but if a dummy module is prepare, using that we can test module A.

– Now module B cannot send or receive data from module A directly so, in these cases we have to transfer data from one module to another module by some external features. This external feature used is called Driver.

35) What is random testing?
When tester performs testing of application by using random input from the input domain of the system, this is Random Testing.

Random testing involve following procedures:

– Selection of input domain.
– Randomly selecting any input from input domain.
– Using these test input testing of application is performed.
– The results are compared to the system specification. The test is a failure if any input leads to incorrect results, otherwise it is a success.

37) What is Agile Testing?
Agile Testing means to quickly validation of the client requirements and make the application of good quality user interface. When the build is released to the testing team, testing of the application is started to find the bugs. As a Tester, we need to focus on the customer or end user requirements. We put the efforts to deliver the quality product in spite of short time frame which will further help in reducing the cost of development and test feedbacks will be implemented in the code which will avoid the defects coming from the end user.
Describe Use Case Testing.
Use Case: A use case is a description of the process which is performed by the end user for a particular task. Use case contains a sequence of step which is performed by the end user to complete a specific task or a step by step process that describe how the application and end user interact with each other. Use case is written by the user point of view.

Use case Testing: the use case testing uses this use case to evaluate the application. So that, the tester can examines all the functionalities of the application. Use case testing cover whole application,

38) What is the purpose of test strategy?
We need Test Strategy for the following reasons:

1. To have a signed, sealed, and delivered document, where the document contains details about the testing methodology, test plan, and test cases.
2. Test strategy document tells us how the software product will be tested.
3. Test strategy document helps to review the test plan with the project team members.
4. It describes the roles, responsibilities and the resources required for the test and schedule.
5. When we create a test strategy document, we have to put into writing any testing issues requiring resolution.

The test strategy is decided first, before lower level decisions are made on the test plan, test design, and other testing issues.
Explain bug life cycle.
Bug Life Cycle:

– When a tester finds a bug .The bug is assigned with NEW or OPEN status,

– The bug is assigned to development project manager who will analyze the bug .He will check whether it is a valid defect. If not valid bug is rejected then status is REJECTED.

– If not, next the defect is checked whether it is in scope. When bug is not part of the current release .Such defects are POSTPONED

– Now, Tester checks whether a similar defect was raised earlier. If yes defect is assigned a status DUPLICATE

– When bug is assigned to developer. During this stage bug is assigned a status IN-PROGRESS

– Once code is fixed. Defect is assigned a status FIXED

– Next the tester will re-test the code. In case the test case passes the defect is CLOSED

– If the test case fails again the bug is RE-OPENED and assigned to the developer. That’s all to Bug Life Cycle.

39) What is Error guessing and Error seeding?
Error Guessing is a test case design technique where the tester has to guess what faults might occur and to design the tests to represent them.

Error Seeding is the process of adding known faults intentionally in a program for the reason of monitoring the rate of detection & removal and also to estimate the number of faults remaining in the program.
Explain Compatibility testing with an example.
Compatibility testing is to evaluate the application compatibility with the computing environment like Operating System, Database, Browser compatibility, backwards compatibility, computing capacity of the Hardware Platform and compatibility of the Peripherals. Example, If Compatibility testing is done on a Game application, before installing a game on a computer, its compatibility is checked with the computer specification that whether it is compatible with the computer having that much of specification or not.