Top most important SQL Server DBA interview questions and answers by Experts:
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1.What purpose does the model database serve?
The model database, as its name implies, serves as the model (or template) for all databases created on the same instance. If the model database is modified, all subsequent databases created on that instance will pick up those changes, but earlier created databases will not. Note that TEMPDB is also created from model every time SQL Server starts up.
2.How do you trace the traffic hitting a SQL Server?
SQL profiler is the SQL Server utility you can use to trace the traffic on the SQL Server instance. Traces can be filtered to narrow down the transactions that are captured and reducing the overhead incurred for the trace. The trace files can be searched, saved off, and even replayed to facilitate troubleshooting.
3.What types of replication are supported in SQL Server?
SQL Server has three types of replication: Snapshot, Merge, and Transaction. Snapshot replication creates a snapshot of the data (point-in-time picture of the data) to deliver to the subscribers. This is a good type to use when the data changes infrequently, there is a small amount of data to replicate, or large changes occur over a small period of time.
Merge replication uses a snapshot to seed the replication. Changes on both sides of the publication are tracked so the subscriber can synchronize with the publisher when connected. A typical use for this type of replication is in a client and server scenario. A server would act as a central repository and multiple clients would independently update their copies of the data until connected. At which time, they would all send up their modifications to the central store.
Transaction replication also begins with a snapshot only this time changes are tracked as transactions (as the name implies). Changes are replicated from publisher to subscriber the same as they occurred on the publisher, in the same order as they occurred, and in near real time. This type of replication is useful when the subscriber needs to know every change that occurred to the data (not point-in-time), when the change volume is high, and when the subscriber needs near real-time access to the changes.
4.Why would you use SQL Agent?
SQL Agent is the job scheduling mechanism in SQL Server. Jobs can be scheduled to run at a set time or when a specific event occurs. Jobs can also be executed on demand. SQL Agent is most often used to schedule administrative jobs such as backups.
5.What happens on checkpoint?
Checkpoints, whether scheduled or manually executed, cause the transaction log to be truncated up to the beginning of the oldest open transaction (the active portion of the log). That is, the dirty pages from the buffer cache are written to disk. Storing committed transactions in the cache provides a performance gain for SQL Server. However, you do not want the transaction log to get too big because it might consume too many resources and, should your database fail, take too long to process to recover the database.
One important thing to note here is that SQL Server can only truncate up to the oldest open transaction. Therefore, if you are not seeing the expected relief from a checkpoint, it could very well be that someone forgot to commit or rollback their transaction. It is very important to finalize all transactions as soon as possible.
6.What is DBCC?
DBCC statements are Database Console Commands and come in four flavors: Maintenance, Informational, Validation, and Miscellaneous. Maintenance commands are those commands that allow the DBA to perform maintenance activities on the database such as shrinking a file. Informational commands provide feedback regarding the database such as providing information about the procedure cache. Validation commands include commands that validate the database such as the ever-popular CHECKDB. Finally, miscellaneous commands are those that obviously don’t fit in the other three categories. This includes statements like DBCC HELP, which provides the syntax for a given DBCC command.
7.How can you control the amount of free space in your index pages?
You can set the fill factor on your indexes. This tells SQL Server how much free space to leave in the index pages when re-indexing. The performance benefit here is fewer page splits (where SQL Server has to copy rows from one index page to another to make room for an inserted row) because there is room for growth built in to the index.
8.Why would you call Update Statistics?
Update Statistics is used to force a recalculation of query optimization statistics for a table or indexed view. Query optimization statistics are automatically recomputed, but in some cases, a query may benefit from updating those statistics more frequently. Beware though that re-computing the query statistics causes queries to be recompiled. This may or may not negate all performance gains you might have achieved by calling update statistics. In fact, it could have a negative impact on performance depending on the characteristics of the system.
9.What is a correlated sub-query?
A correlated sub-query is a nested query that is linked to the outer query. For instance, say I wanted to find all the employees who have not entered their time for the week. I could query the Employee table to get their first and last name, but I need to look at the TimeEntry table to see if they’ve entered their time or not. I can’t do a straight join here because I’m looking for the absence of time data, so I’ll do a correlated sub-query similar to this:
SELECT FirstName, LastName
FROM EMPLOYEE e
WHERE NOT EXISTS (SELECT 1 FROM TimeEntry te
WHERE te.EmpID = e.EmpID
AND te.WeekID = 35)
Notice that the inner query relates to the outer query on the employee ID, thus making it a correlated sub-query. The inner query will be evaluated once per outer query row.
10.What authentication modes does SQL Server support?
SQL Server supports Windows Authentication and mixed-mode. Mixed-mode allows you to use both Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication to log into your SQL Server. It’s important to note that if you use Windows Authentication, you will not be able to log in as sa.
11.Explain about your SQL Server DBA Experience?
This is a generic question often asked by many interviewers. Explain what are the different SQL Server Versions you have worked on, what kind of administration of those instances has been done by you. Your role and responsibilities carried out in your earlier projects that would be of significance to the potential employer. This is the answer that lets the interviewer know how suitable are you for the position to which you are being interviewed.
22.What are the different SQL Server Versions you have worked on?
The answer would be depending on the versions you have worked on, I would say I have experience working in SQL Server 7, SQL Server 2000, 2005 and 2008. If you have worked only the some version be honest in saying that, remember, no one would be working on all versions, it varies from individual to individual.[sociallocker]
23.What are the different types of Indexes available in SQL Server?
The simplest answer to this is “Clustered and Non-Clustered Indexes”. There are other types of Indexes what can be mentioned such as Unique, XML, Spatial and Filtered Indexes. More on these Indexes later.
24.What is the difference between Clustered and Non-Clustered Index?
In a clustered index, the leaf level pages are the actual data pages of the table. When a clustered index is created on a table, the data pages are arranged accordingly based on the clustered index key. There can only be one Clustered index on a table.
In a Non-Clustered index, the leaf level pages does not contain data pages instead it contains pointers to the data pages. There can multiple non-clustered indexes on a single table.
25.What are the new features in SQL Server 2005 when compared to SQL Server 2000?
There are quite a lot of changes and enhancements in SQL Server 2005. Few of them are listed here :
Dynamic Management Views
System Catalog Views
SQL Server Integration Services
Support for Analysis Services on a a Failover Cluster.
Profiler being able to trace the MDX queries of the Analysis Server.
26.What are the High-Availability solutions in SQL Server and differentiate them briefly?
Failover Clustering, Database Mirroring, Log Shipping and Replication are the High-Availability features available in SQL Server. I would recommend reading this blog of mine which explains the differences between these 4 features. Comparing the High Availability Features in SQL Server 2005
27.How do you troubleshoot errors in a SQL Server Agent Job?
Inside SSMS, in Object explorer under SQL Server Agent look for Job Activity Monitor. The job activity monitor displays the current status of all the jobs on the instance. Choose the particular job which failed, right click and choose view history from the drop down menu. The execution history of the job is displayed and you may choose the execution time (if the job failed multiple times during the same day). There would information such as the time it took to execute that Job and details about the error occurred.
28.What is the default Port No on which SQL Server listens?
29.How many files can a Database contain in SQL Server?How many types of data files exists in SQL Server? How many of those files can exist for a single database?
A Database can contain a maximum of 32,767 files.
There are Primarily 2 types of data files Primary data file and Secondary data file(s)
There can be only one Primary data file and multiple secondary data files as long as the total # of files is less than 32,767 files.
30.What is DCL?
DCL stands for Data Control Language.
31.What are the commands used in DCL?
GRANT, DENY and REVOKE.
32.What is Fill Factor?
Fill Factor is a setting that is applicable to Indexes in SQL Server. The fill factor value determines how much data is written to an index page when it is created / rebuilt.
33.What is the default fill factor value?
By default the fill factor value is set to 0.
34.Where do you find the default Index fill factor and how to change it?
The easiest way to find and change the default fill factor value is from Management Studio, right-click the SQL Server and choose properties. In the Server Properties, choose Database Settings, you should see the default fill factor value in the top section. You can change to a desired value there and click OK to save the changes.
The other option of viewing and changing this value is using sp_configure.
35.What is a system database and what is a user database?
System databases are the default databases that are installed when the SQL Server is installed. Basically there are 4 system databases: Master, MSDB, TempDB and Model. It is highly recommended that these databases are not modified or altered for smooth functioning of the SQL System.
A user database is a database that we create to store data and start working with the data.
36.What are the recovery models for a database?
There are 3 recovery models available for a database. Full, Bulk-Logged and Simple are the three recovery models available.
37.What is the importance of a recovery model?
Primarily, recovery model is chosen keeping in view the amount of data loss one can afford to. If one expects to have minimal or no data loss, choosing the Full recovery model is a good choice. Depending on the recovery model of a database, the behavior of database log file changes. I would recommend you read more material on log backups and log file behavior and so on to understand in depth.
38.What is Replication?
Replication is a feature in SQL Server that helps us publish database objects and data and copy (replicate) it to one or more destinations. It is often considered as one of the High-Availability options. One of the advantages with Replication is that it can be configured on databases which are in simple recovery model.
39.What the different types of Replication and why are they used?
There are basically 3 types of replication: Snapshot, Transactional and Merge Replication. The type of Replication you choose, depends on the requirements and/or the goals one is trying to achieve. For example Snapshot Replication is useful only when the data inside the tables does not change frequently and the amount of data is not too large, such as a monthly summary table or a product list table etc. Transactional Replication would useful when maintaining a copy of a transactional table such as sales [/sociallocker]
40.What is a Database?
A Database Administrator needs to know what a database is before they can administer it, right? At its most basic, a database is a collection of tables, structured in such a way that it can be navigated like you would any sort of table. If you remember in math class, you may have had a number of tables that allowed you to quickly find a value if you multiplied an x and y value together — or in this case, what it would be if you were looking for a particular row and column value.
41.What is a query?
A query in normal terms is a question, simple enough. It is the statement that is talking to the database in order to Create, Read, Update or Delete (CRUD) data. While many times a query is an actual question asking for an answer, it can also be the statement to modify, insert, or remove data in the database as well.
45.What is SQL?
Structured Query Language is the basic way of asking a database server to talk to you. Whether that is in the context of asking it a question, giving it answers to questions it is asking you, or updating answers that have already been stored in the database. The art of asking the right question is critical to getting back the right data you need, which is incredibly valuable when dealing with databases, as it is very easy to receive far more data than you know what to do with, or nothing at all.
46.What does ‘SELECT’ do?
SELECT in the terms of an SQL query triggers a question to the database. It looks across the specified table(s), finds the data you are looking for and then presents it to the user for consideration. Depending on the query, this can be an awful lot of data, so again, asking the right question is critical.
47.What is a primary key?
A primary key is usually used as the index for a particular table — a value that the table can depend upon to be a reliable unique value in every row. When trying to pull data for a particular row, the primary key will normally be used to pull that information, usually a numeric value. For example, if you are trying to pull up data on a specific person, and that database is using their unencrypted ssn as the primary key (naughty), then that could be used in the query to identify that particular row since there could be other people present in the database with that specific name or other identifying characteristics.
48.What is a Database Management System?
A Database Management System, or DBMS, is essentially the application that handles the heavy lifting between you (the user), and the raw data. The database itself is just that — the database; it cannot alter its own data any more than the average person can re-arrange their genetic code. The DBMS is what you are talking to when you are asking the questions. It is what looks at your question, thinks about it for a while, goes to the database, picks up the data, hands it back to you, and asks you to come again.
49.What is the difference between a Navigational database and a Relational database?
The best way to describe a Navigational DBMS is through that of a tree. Each value was associated with another through the use of a parent, most of the time with no other direct way to access the data. Relational Databases on the other hand use values common to multiple tables to establish a unique key — making sure that they are talking on the same page so that there are many, many ways to get to the same place. To put it another way, if you were trying to get from point A to point B, a navigational database would have one specific path to get there — via a freeway. A relational database on the other hand would have options for taking the freeway, a back road, a boat, a plane, a bus and sometimes a rocket — provided that each of those methods were set up correctly to talk to each other. Most modern databases use the relational database model.
50.Why do most database types not talk to each other?
In a word: money. In three words: a lotttta money. Different database vendors spend a huge amount of research time trying to find ways to give them a leg up on the competition; whether that may be by performance, storage capacity, longevity, reliability, scalability, the list goes on and on. As a result, trying to be compatible and backwards engineer every single feature of a particular database type is difficult in the extreme before you even get to the patent violations. Most databases can be simplified down to filetypes like .csv files, which can be used to transport basic data from vendor to vendor. That being said however, there would be a lot lost in translation without help from higher up.
51.What is a Frontend?
For those that don’t want to see row upon row upon row of data in front of them until they go cross-eyed, a frontend is essential. In essence a management program, a frontend allows admins to be able to view and modify high level database functions without the need to use the command line for every single thing. This can be extremely useful not only for efficiency, but also for safety, as it can prevent accidental data modification. It can also allow users that are more used to a GUI application most of the utility that the CLI permits.
52.What is a ‘join’?
Well when two tables love each other very much…not that much happens actually. However when you need to search across multiple tables simultaneously, a join can help make that happen. For example, if you were searching for information on a particular product and one table has the description while the other has pricing information, you can use a join to search across both tables simultaneously using a single query.
53.What is a foreign key?
When using a join or other type of query that goes across multiple tables, it can sometimes be difficult to make sure they are talking on the same page. A primary key can help with this, but sometimes this is impractical, and thus you need a secondary value that is consistent across multiple tables. For example, say that in a series of tables for product listings you have your primary key assigned to an auto-increment ID based on when the product was entered (a typical setup), and then none of these rows are able to line up with their counterparts in other tables. So if you have one table for product listings, another for price information, another for reviews, etc. — this could be a fairly major problem. However, if you know for a certainty that your part numbers for these products are going to be unique values, you can use that as a foreign key and suddenly everything lines up all nice and neat. This is possible since it exists in more than one table, and since is being referenced from outside its own table; it is designated ‘foreign’. This does not mean it still could not be the primary key for that particular table as well, it just means it has a reference that can be looked to from another point of view.
54.What is SQL Injection?
Also known as asking a question and getting the answer you want, rather than the answer they want to give you (anybody that has tried to navigate certain nameless support phones knows that this isn’t necessarily a bad thing); however in the context of a database application, this can be “a very bad thing”™. For instance, say that you are on an online banking website. You’re at the login screen, and it is waiting for you to enter your login and password so it can display your particular financial information. But what if you want to see the listing of everybody else that banks at this particular location? Depending on how the bank’s site is hardened against such an attack, you could get their personal information, current balances, PIN numbers, or even worse, enter your own data directly into the database — able to create new accounts, set up transaction history, active balances, the list goes on and on.
55.What is input sterilization?
One of the main answers to SQL Injection, input sterilization allows the database to selectively ignore data coming in from an input field and strip out non-required data. For example, if a field is expecting only a numeric value, there is no need for letters or symbols to be present in the user input. Therefore, these values can be safely ignored but still keep the functionality of the form intact. While not an end-all beat-all, it goes a long way to helping mitigate attacks on this vector.
SQL Vs NoSQL
NoSQL (Also called Not Only SQL), is a different form of database than the standard relational type. While it can use a lot of the same kinds of query language, it doesn’t necessarily use the same type of table structure that standard relational databases use, and thus in some cases can be more efficient. That efficiency depends greatly on its application however, and many times you will see NoSQL used in Big Data crunching and analysis applications that require real-time feedback.
56.What is a ‘Flat File’?
A flatfile is a catch-all term used for concepts like Comma Separated Values (.csv). While there are a lot of different ways to create such a file, they all share ideas that they can be created and manipulated easily and without necessarily requiring a standard database application. These can also be used to transfer data from system to system due to their lightweight status. In some cases, these have been replaced by XML files, however XML can when compared to certain kinds of flatfiles, be very large.
57.I have a database that was built in MySQL, and I need the data to be moved over to Microsoft SQL Server. How would I do this?
The easy answer would be to contact Microsoft Tech Support and bring your checkbook. A more difficult answer would be to bring it down to a .csv file and then import it into SQL Server, but without a specialty conversion utility you may lose some program-specific specific tricks, thus requiring some rebuilding once the conversion is complete. This is not saying that this would work in all cases, but it is at least an option.
58.What is the difference between ‘=’ and ‘LIKE’?
When crafting a query, or using programming to display data in certain ways depending on the values being returned, you may want to think that these can be used interchangeably. There is one big difference, however: equal means equal. The value being returned must match the value it is being compared to 100%. LIKE, however, can be used with a number of different wildcard mechanics, allowing you to be a bit more flexible in your rules.
59.What is a Null Value?
A Null Value is an absence of data. This one is a bit misleading sometimes, because depending on who you ask, it can be considered many possible things. “Null equals 0”- Not in this context, because 0 is a value. “Null equals Empty” — closer, but again sometimes an empty value can still be considered a value depending on how the field is structured. If a column allows for null values, and no value is submitted, then it allows it to be Null.
60.What does ‘INSERT’ do?
INSERT submits data into a database as a new row, usually through the use of a form. While forms can take many…forms…, the most common uses are through either a dedicated application or through the use of an HTML form. Clicking on the ‘submit’ button will trigger the built in form reaction to scan the form for particular fields, making sure the required ones are entered correctly, make sure the user isn’t being naughty in what they are trying to enter, then submit the data to the database.
61.What does ‘DROP’ do?
DROP removes a table from a database or a database from a server. A very dangerous command indeed, it is only to be used in situations that absolutely require it, as unless you have a backup of it handy, there is no coming back from this.
62.What is the difference between T-SQL and PL/SQL?
T-SQL or Transact-SQL is Microsoft’s version of SQL. The main additions Microsoft made to the main branch of SQL involve the addition of procedures or routines — scripts essentially — that can be run under certain criteria. PL/SQL, on the other hand, is Oracle’s version of SQL, and conceptually the two are very similar. However, because of the nature in how they were developed, trying to move data from one to the other involves quite a bit of work. The main differences deal with how they multi-task and how they lock elements when they are in use.
63.What does ‘UPDATE’ do?
UPDATE allows values to be modified where they meet specific criteria. For example, say that you were on Amazon and were about to move. As a result, you would want to adjust your mailing address so that you actually got your stuff. You would therefore go into your settings and it would show you your current address. Modifying this address and then submitting the form would update your address based on your particular user profile. If it updated anybody else’s address to match that would be a serious problem — at least for the person doing the paying.
64.Why do database servers benefit from a lot of memory, and why do 64-bit operating systems help in this regard?
Database servers like to cache as much data as possible when they are reading it a lot. Storing this information in active memory is a lot faster than trying to find it again from the hard disk or other media. Therefore more memory = faster response time = better performance. The problem is that for most operating systems the maximum amount of memory that can be used by a 32-bit OS is 4 gigabytes. While in years past this would have been an inconceivable number, today it is a drop in the bucket. 64-bit operating systems resolve this issue by being able to handle memory to 192 gigabytes currently for Windows, while Linux can theoretically go much higher at present, and these numbers will only climb higher and higher.
65.Why is it a bad idea to run a test on a live database?
On a test database, it’s relatively easy to keep the performance variables to a minimum. On a live database however, it needs to be functioning for all users all the time. Running untested code on a production database can not only reduce performance, but also create unforeseen instability in the server itself — potentially causing crashes and data corruption.
66.Why is it difficult to use standard file by file backup methods on an active database server?
This problem is twofold. First, many database servers place locks on database files that are currently in use. Most backup programs that try to do a file-by-file backup will therefore be unable to create a copy of this file, as they cannot get exclusive permissions to it. Second, while some database servers have only a single file to backup a database, others have multiple files that can be stored in different locations across possibly multiple physical hard disks. The problem can be resolved in one of two potential ways. First, using the backup method within the database server itself. Some programs such as Microsoft SQL Server allow you to create a scheduled backup directly within the server application to a location of your choosing. Others require you to use a scheduled task or another on-demand type of backup solution. The second would be to use a backup application that can talk directly to the database server, allowing the database to be backed up using a different technique.
67.When would you use an offline backup method versus an online backup?
If the above methods are unavailable when trying to create a backup solution, another potential method is temporarily taking down the database or database server in order to create a file-by-file backup. The problem with this method is that if the server goes down incorrectly, the backups could be flagged as bad and thus unusable. Periodically testing your backups to make sure they are working properly is strongly recommended, regardless of what method you use to create them.
68.What is Replication?
Database replication allows for real-time automated backups between multiple database servers. This allows for the creation of either a fall-over server, or warm backup for use in case the main server goes down.
Is data in databases encrypted by default?
While most database servers support some form of encryption out of the box, it is not enabled by default due to performance hits and security concerns.
69.How would you store files within a database?
Two common ways to store files for use by a database are either within the operating system’s file system, or within a field of the table itself. Uploading and storing the files outside of the database makes for faster creation of the application, and can be more efficient if the file sizes are larger, but can potentially cause security issues if the files are not secured correctly. On the other hand, the files can also be stored directly within the database using a BLOB-type field. A BLOB is a Binary Large Object, essentially an empty area where a file can be uploaded to but not exceed a specified limit. Like int in the example above, blob has a number of different potential sizes, depending on the type used. Bear in mind there are other methods for storing and accessing files in a database server, these two are merely the most common.
70.When would you use ‘char’ versus ‘varchar’?
This is a bit of a difficult question, mostly because it depends so much on what your application is. For example, if you have a form field that can be nearly any length and changes every single time, then varchar is a much more practical choice, since it gives you much more flexibility. If however you have a field where every value is going to be exactly the same length, then you can get more efficient performance out of a char. Again, it depends on exactly what your application is, and how you plan to cook it — seasoning as you see fit.
71.What is XML?
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a fast way to display data that not only conforms to a structure that can be read by machines, but is also easily understandable by humans. Because they can be dynamically and manually generated in many different ways, they are easy to produce and map to; and because they retain the same structure despite the data being updated, they can be relied upon for automatic functions such as RSS aggregation.
72.What shows that a database server is running?
<Insert joke about needing to catch it here/> Database servers run as services or daemons, most times in the background without the necessity to see that they are running in order to interact with them. When things go sideways however, being able to verify that the service is in fact up and running can be an excellent place to start troubleshooting. Checking under the services area of your particular operating system, whether that be by GUI or by CLI, can show you that the service is started or not, thus allowing you either to start or restart it as need be.
73.What is WYSIWYG?
What You See Is What You Get. A mouthful of an acronym, it allows for the creation of an application that is consistent regardless of how it is viewed — whether on the design screen, being viewed in a browser or being printed. Creating an interface to a database that is not only functional but also looks nice is a trick in itself, and can take a lot of work to get it just right.
74.Why is it frowned upon to use ‘SELECT * ..’ in a large database?
Picture it like a group of people in line for a bathroom, and every single person that was going in there was going to use the toilet, change their clothes, take a shower, iron their jacket, take another shower, etc. There is only so much area that can be used efficiently before you start to get a queue, slowing down the whole operation that can eventually cause the entire thing to collapse under lack of toilet paper. You can quickly get back more than you can use or understand, so optimization is key when creating queries and asking only what you need to get the question answered.
75.How would you get the quantity of results from a query?
COUNT() is the main supported way to be able to get the number of returned results from a query. While there are many other options such as mysql_num_rows, these are considered obsolete and are being removed.
76.What is a Database Schema?
If you’ve ever seen one of those Visio diagrams with 40 different tables with lines connecting particular columns on one with those on another, that’s a database schema. Essentially a two-dimensional representation of how each table talks to other ones, it is the way to view the design of a database as a single entity and not as a jumble of different tables.
77.What are Nested Queries?
A query within a query, this particular method can be tremendously difficult to troubleshoot and even harder to manage without a lot of overhead. In most cases, a nested query can be replaced with a JOIN, allowing for much more efficient use of resources.
78.What is ODBC?
Open Database Connectivity is a way to make different kinds of frontends talk to different data sources (DSNs) such as Databases. The specifics available depend on the type of application being used, the driver being used and the backend to which it is being applied.
79.For Oracle systems, what is OFA?
Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) is the recommended layout for installing and configuring an Oracle database.
80.For Oracle systems, what is error “ORA-01034”?
The full error is “ORA-01034: ORACLE not available”. While there are many potential causes, the most common is that the service is just not running. The resolution is to start the service, then see if the error comes back.
81.What is Normalization?
When most people first start working with databases, the first instinct is to create massive tables for storing data — one place, one query — keeps things simple. However, as they grow to unmanageable levels, it is a good idea to look into Database Normalization. This idea allows for data to be split off into smaller more efficient tables that (hopefully) reduce the amount of duplicate data. In this way, smaller queries can be run on individual tables instead of having everybody always talking to one big one — thus improving performance.
82.For Microsoft SQL Server, what is a DMV?
Dynamic Management Views are functions built into Microsoft SQL Server that allow for troubleshooting, diagnostics and server health monitoring.
83.What are the default ports for MySQL, SQL Server and Oracle, and can/should this be changed?
The default port for MySQL is 3306, and can be changed in Windows as noted in this article or in *nix as noted in this article. The default port for Microsoft SQL Server is 1433, and can be changed as noted in this article. The default port for Oracle is 1521, and can be changed as noted in this article. Depending on your security stance, changing the port that your database server uses can be a good way to lower your profile and reduce the amount of unauthorized access attempts against the server.
84.For Microsoft SQL Server, What is Log Shipping?
A form of backup on Microsoft SQL Server, Log Shipping is similar to replication and allows for rapid failover if the main server goes down. One thing to bear in mind, however, is that a log shipping based failover must be activated manually; it will not switch over automatically.
85.For Microsoft SQL Server, what is DBCC?
Database Console Commands (DBCC) are a series of utilities for SQL Server designed for maintenance and reporting. A full list of the commands can be found here.
86.What is Cloud Computing?
Cloud Computing is usually a catch all term for data being stored “over there”. Placing high-requirement applications onto dedicated hosting services can be beneficial depending on the application, however it can also cause catastrophic security problems and availability issues. It is therefore highly recommended to keep important data in-house, and only outsource in situations that it cannot be avoided. Cloud Computing, Big Data and Data Mining are many times talked about in the same sentence since processing power required for one usually means the others become viable either as a requirement or a side effect.