Top most important Testing tools interview questions and answers by Experts:
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1) What is Test Bed?
An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds(s) to be used.
2) What is Test Case?
Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc. A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement. Test Driven Development? Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.
3) What is Test Driver?
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.
4) What is Test Environment?
The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.
5) What is Test First Design?
Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.
6) What is Test Harness?
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Driver.
7) What is Test Plan?
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.
8) What is Test Procedure?
A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.
9) What is Test Script?
Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.
10) What is Test Specification?
A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.
11) What is Test Suite?
A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.
12) What is Test Tools?
Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.
13) What is Thread Testing?
A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.
14) What is Top Down Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.
15) What is Total Quality Management?
A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction.
16) What is Traceability Matrix?
A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.
17) What is Usability Testing?
Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.
18) What is Use Case?
The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.
19) What is Unit Testing?
Testing of individual software components.
20) What is Validation?
The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing.
21) What is Verification?
The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing.
22) What is White Box Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing and Glass Box Testing. Contrast with Black Box Testing. White box testing is used to test the internal logic of the code for ex checking whether the path has been executed once, checking whether the branches has been executed atleast once …..Used to check the structure of the code.
23)What is Workflow Testing?
Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user.
24) What’s the difference between load and stress testing ?
One of the most common, but unfortunate misuse of terminology is treating “load testing” and “stress testing” as synonymous. The consequence of this ignorant semantic abuse is usually that the system is neither properly “load tested” nor subjected to a meaningful stress test. Stress testing is subjecting a system to an unreasonable load while denying it the resources (e.g., RAM, disc, mips, interrupts, etc.) needed to process that load. The idea is to stress a system to the breaking point in order to find bugs that will make that break potentially harmful. The system is not expected to process the overload without adequate resources, but to behave (e.g., fail) in a decent manner (e.g., not corrupting or losing data). Bugs and failure modes discovered under stress testing may or may not be repaired depending on the application, the failure mode, consequences, etc. The load (incoming transaction stream) in stress testing is often deliberately distorted so as to force the system into resource depletion. Load testing is subjecting a system to a statistically representative (usually) load. The two main reasons for using such loads is in support of software reliability testing and in performance testing. The term ‘load testing’ by itself is too vague and imprecise to warrant use. For example, do you mean representative load,’ ‘overload,’ ‘high load,’ etc. In performance testing, load is varied from a minimum (zero) to the maximum level the system can sustain without running out of resources or having, transactions >suffer (application-specific) excessive delay. A third use of the term is as a test whose objective is to determine the maximum sustainable load the system can handle. In this usage, ‘load testing’ is merely testing at the highest transaction arrival rate in performance testing.
25)What’s the difference between QA and testing?
QA is more a preventive thing, ensuring quality in the company and therefore the product rather than just testing the product for software bugs? TESTING means ‘quality control’ QUALITY CONTROL measures the quality of a product QUALITY ASSURANCE measures the quality of processes used to create a quality product.
26) What is the best tester to developer ratio?
Reported tester: developer ratios range from 10:1 to 1:10. There’s no simple answer. It depends on so many things, Amount of reused code, number and type of interfaces, platform, quality goals, etc. It also can depend on the development model. The more specs, the less testers. The roles can play a big part also. Does QA own beta? Do you include process auditors or planning activities? These figures can all vary very widely depending on how you define ‘tester’ and ‘developer’. In some organizations, a ‘tester’ is anyone who happens to be testing software at the time — such as their own. In other organizations, a ‘tester’ is only a member of an independent test group. It is better to ask about the test labor content than it is to ask about the tester/developer ratio. The test labor content, across most applications is generally accepted as 50%, when people do honest accounting. For life-critical software, this can go up to 80%.
27)How can new Software QA processes be introduced in an existing organization?
– A lot depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk (in terms of lives or property) projects, serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. – Where the risk is lower, management and organizational buy-in and QA implementation may be a slower, step-at-a-time process. QA processes should be balanced with productivity so as to keep bureaucracy from getting out of hand. – For small groups or projects, a more ad-hoc process may be appropriate, depending on the type of customers and projects. A lot will depend on team leads or managers, feedback to developers, and ensuring adequate communications among customers, managers, developers, and testers. – In all cases the most value for effort will be in requirements management processes, with a goal of clear, complete, testable requirement specifications or expectations.
28) What are 5 common problems in the software development process?
1. poor requirements – if requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable, there will be problems. 2. unrealistic schedule – if too much work is crammed in too little time, problems are inevitable. 3. inadequate testing – no one will know whether or not the program is any good until the customer complains or systems crash. 4. features – requests to pile on new features after development is underway; extremely common. 5. miscommunication – if developers don’t know what’s needed or customer’s have erroneous expectations, problems are guaranteed.
29)What are 5 common solutions to software development problems?
1. solid requirements – clear, complete, detailed, cohesive, attainable, testable requirements that are agreed to by all players. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. 2. realistic schedules – allow adequate time for planning, design, testing, bug fixing, re-testing, changes, and documentation; personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. 3. adequate testing – start testing early on, re-test after fixes or changes, plan for adequate time for testing and bug-fixing. 4. stick to initial requirements as much as possible – be prepared to defend against changes and additions once development has begun, and be prepared to explain consequences. If changes are necessary, they should be adequately reflected in related schedule changes. If possible, use rapid prototyping during the design phase so that customers can see what to expect. This will provide them a higher comfort level with their requirements decisions and minimize changes later on. 5. communication – require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate; make extensive use of group communication tools – e-mail, groupware, networked bug-tracking tools and change management tools, intranet capabilities, etc.; insure that documentation is available and up-to-date – preferably electronic, not paper; promote teamwork and cooperation; use prototypes early on so that customers’ expectations are clarified.
30) What is ‘good code’?
‘Good code’ is code that works, is bug free, and is readable and maintainable. Some organizations have coding ‘standards’ that all developers are supposed to adhere to, but everyone has different ideas about what’s best, or what is too many or too few rules. There are also various theories and metrics, such as McCabe Complexity metrics. It should be kept in mind that excessive use of standards and rules can stifle productivity and creativity. ‘Peer reviews’, ‘buddy checks’ code analysis tools, etc. can be used to check for problems and enforce standards. For C and C++ coding, here are some typical ideas to consider in setting rules/standards; these may or may not apply to a particular situation: – minimize or eliminate use of global variables. – use descriptive function and method names – use both upper and lower case, avoid abbreviations, use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line); be consistent in naming conventions. – use descriptive variable names – use both upper and lower case, avoid abbreviations, use as many characters as necessary to be adequately descriptive (use of more than 20 characters is not out of line); be consistent in naming conventions. – function and method sizes should be minimized; less than 100 lines of code is good, less than 50 lines is preferable. – function descriptions should be clearly spelled out in comments preceding a function’s code.- organize code for readability. – use whitespace generously – vertically and horizontally – each line of code should contain 70 characters max. – one code statement per line. – coding style should be consistent throughout a program (eg, use of brackets, indentations, naming conventions, etc.) – in adding comments, err on the side of too many rather than too few comments; a common rule of thumb is that there should be at least as many lines of comments (including header blocks) as lines of code. – no matter how small, an application should include documentation of the overall program function and flow (even a few paragraphs is better than nothing); or if possible a separate flow chart and detailed program documentation. – make extensive use of error handling procedures and status and error logging. – for C++, to minimize complexity and increase maintainability, avoid too many levels of inheritance in class hierarchies (relative to the size and complexity of the application). Minimize use of multiple inheritance, and minimize use of operator overloading (note that the Java programming language eliminates multiple inheritance and operator overloading.) – for C++, keep class methods small, less than 50 lines of code per method is preferable. – for C++, make liberal use of exception handlers
31) What is ‘good design’?
‘Design’ could refer to many things, but often refers to ‘functional design’ or ‘internal design’. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable, and maintainable; is robust with sufficient error-handling and status logging capability; and works correctly when implemented. Good functional design is indicated by an application whose functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. For programs that have a user interface, it’s often a good idea to assume that the end user will have little computer knowledge and may not read a user manual or even the on-line help; some common rules-of-thumb include: – the program should act in a way that least surprises the user – it should always be evident to the user what can be done next and how to exit – the program shouldn’t let the users do something stupid without warning them.
32) What makes a good test engineer?
A good test engineer has a ‘test to break’ attitude, an ability to take the point of view of the customer, a strong desire for quality, and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers, and an ability to communicate with both technical (developers) and non-technical (customers, management) people is useful. Previous software development experience can be helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software development process, gives the tester an appreciation for the developers’ point of view, and reduce the learning curve in automated test tool programming. Judgment skills are needed to assess high-risk areas of an application on which to focus testing efforts when time is limited.
33) What is Acceptance Testing?
Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.
34) What is Accessibility Testing?
Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).
35) What is Ad Hoc Testing?
A testing phase where the tester tries to ‘break’ the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. Can include negative testing as well. See also Monkey Testing.
36) What is Agile Testing?
Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.
37) What is Application Binary Interface (ABI)?
A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across different system platforms and environments.
38) What is Application Programming Interface (API)?
A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.
39) What is Automated Software Quality (ASQ)?
The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.
40) What is Automated Testing?
Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing. The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.
41) What is Backus-Naur Form?
A metalanguage used to formally describe the syntax of a language.
42) What is Basic Block?
A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.
43) What is Basis Path Testing?
A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.
44) What is Basis Set?
The set of tests derived using basis path testing.
45) What is Baseline?
The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.
46) What you will do during the first day of job?
What would you like to do five years from now?
47) What is Beta Testing?
Testing of a release of a software product conducted by customers.
48) What is Binary Portability Testing?
Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.
49) What is Black Box Testing?
Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.
50) What is Bottom Up Testing?
An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
51) What is Boundary Testing?
Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).
52) What is Bug?
A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.
53) What is Defect?
If software misses some feature or function from what is there in requirement it is called as defect.
54) What is Boundary Value Analysis?
BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on “corner cases” or values that are usually out of range as defined by the specification. his means that if a function expects all values in range of negative 100 to positive 1000, test inputs would include negative 101 and positive 1001.
55) What is Branch Testing?
Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.
56) What is Breadth Testing?
A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.
57) What is CAST?
Computer Aided Software Testing.
58) What is Capture/Replay Tool?
A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.
59) What is CMM?
The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.
60) What is Cause Effect Graph?
A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.
61) What is Code Complete?
Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.
62) What is Code Coverage?
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.
63) What is Code Inspection?
A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.
64) What is Code Walkthrough?
A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer’s logic and assumptions.
65) What is Coding?
The generation of source code.
66) What is Compatibility Testing?
Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.
67) What is Component?
A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available.
68) What is Component Testing?
Testing of individual software components (Unit Testing).
69) What is Concurrency Testing?
Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.
70)What is Conformance Testing?
The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.
71) What is Context Driven Testing?
The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.
72) What is Conversion Testing?
Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
73) What is Cyclomatic Complexity?
A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.
74) What is Data Dictionary?
A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.
75) What is Data Flow Diagram?
A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.
76) What is Data Driven Testing?
Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.
77) What is Debugging?
The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.
78) What is Defect?
Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification
79) What is Dependency Testing?
Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.
80) What is Depth Testing?
A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.
81)What is Dynamic Testing?
Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.
82) What is Emulator?
A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.
83) What is Endurance Testing?
Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.
84) What is End-to-End testing?
Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.
85) What is Equivalence Class?
A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.
86) What is Equivalence Partitioning?
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.
87) What is Exhaustive Testing?
Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.
88) What is Functional Decomposition?
A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.
89) What is Functional Specification?
A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.
90) What is Functional Testing?
Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications. Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions. or Black Box Testing.
91) What is Glass Box Testing?
A synonym for White Box Testing.
92) What is Gorilla Testing?
Testing one particular module, functionality heavily.
93) What is Gray Box Testing?
A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies? testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.
94) What is High Order Tests?
Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.
95) What is Independent Test Group (ITG)?
A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing,
96) What is Inspection?
A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).
97) What is Integration Testing?
Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.
98) What is Installation Testing?
Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.
99) What is Load Testing?
See Performance Testing.
100) What is Localization Testing?
This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.
101) What is Loop Testing?
A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.
102) What is Metric?
A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.
103) What is Monkey Testing?
Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.
104) What is Negative Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”. See also Positive Testing.
105) What is Path Testing?
Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.
106) What is Performance Testing?
Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as “Load Testing”.
107) What is Positive Testing?
Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”. See also Negative Testing.
108) What is Quality Assurance?
All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.