Java fast track training

Java fast track training

RVH Technologies provides Java fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. Java selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

Java fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

http://www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for Java fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

MSBI fast track training

MSBI fast track training : 

RVH Technologies provides MSBI fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. MSBI selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

MSBI fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

www.rvhtech.com/MSBI.html

Please click here for Register for MSBI fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

Teradata fast track training

Teradata fast track training:

RVH Technologies provides Teradata fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. Teradata selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

Teradata fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

www.rvhtech.com/Teradata.html

Please click here for Register for Teradata fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

SAP ABAP fast track training

SAP ABAP fast track training:

RVH Technologies provides SAP ABAP fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. SAP ABAP selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

SAP ABAP fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

http://www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for SAP ABAP fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

Business Analyst fast track training

Business Analyst fast track training :

RVH Technologies provides Business Analyst fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. Business Analyst selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

Business Analyst fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

http://www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for Business Analyst fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

 

SAP BI fast track training

SAP BI fast track training

RVH Technologies provides SAP BI fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. SAP BI selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

SAP BI fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

http://www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for SAP BI fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

Informatica fast track training

Informatica fast track training

RVH Technologies provides Informatica fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. Informatica selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

Informatica fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

http://www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for Informatica fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

Sharepoint fast track training

Sharepoint fast track training

RVH Technologies provides Sharepoint fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. Sharepoint selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

Sharepoint fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for Sharepoint fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

Qlikview fast track training

Qlikview fast track training

RVH Technologies provides qlikview fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. qlikview selfpaced/ online training videos
for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

qlikview fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

Slide1

Find the course content :

http://www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for qlikview fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

cognos fast track training

cognos fast track training:

RVH Technologies provides cognos fast track training in live, real-time and interactive. cognos selfpaced/ online training videos for very affordable price/cost/fees with high quality.

cognos fast track training for a very affordable cost from any where in the world.

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Find the course content :

www.rvhtech.com

Please click here for Register for cognos fast track training .Hurry Up limited seats available.

Ab initio self paced online training videos

Ab initio self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides Ab initio Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. Ab initio self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

Ab initio

Ab initio self paced online training (Ab initio video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for Ab initio online training videos

Oracle self paced online training videos

Oracle self paced online training videos

RVH Technologies provides Oracle Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. Oracle self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

oracle

Oracle self paced online training (Oracle video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for Oracle online training videos

SAP HANA self paced online training videos

SAP HANA self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides SAP HANA Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. SAP HANA self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

sap hana

SAP HANA self paced online training (SAP HANA video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for SAP HANA online training videos

Datastage self paced online training videos

Datastage self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides Datastage Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. Datastage self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

datastage

Datastage self paced online training (Datastage video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for Datastage online training videos

Qlikview self paced online training videos

Qlikview self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides Qlikview Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. Qlikview self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

QVD

Qlikview self paced online training (Qlikview video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for Qlikview online training videos

CCNA self paced online training videos

CCNA self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides ccna Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. ccna self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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ccna self paced online training (ccna video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for ccna online training videos

Selenium self paced online training videos

Selenium self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides selenium Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. selenium self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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selenium self paced online training (selenium video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for selenium online training videos

Manual testing self paced online training videos

Manual testing self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides manual testing Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. manual testing self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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manual testing self paced online training (manual testing video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for manual testing online training videos

QTP self paced online training videos

QTP self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides qtp Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. qtp self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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qtp self paced online training (qtp video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for qtp online training videos

Sql server dba self paced online training videos

SQL Server dba self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides sql server dba Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. sql server dba self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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sql server dba self paced online training (sql server dba video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for sql server dba online training videos

ASP dot net self paced online training videos

ASP dot net self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides asp dot net Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. asp dot net self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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asp dot net self paced online training (asp dot net video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for asp dot net online training videos

Devops self paced online training videos

Devops self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides devops Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. devops self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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devops self paced online training (devops video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for devops online training videos

Salesforce self paced online training videos

Salesforce  self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides salesforce Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. salesforce self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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salesforce self paced online training (salesforce video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for salesforce online training videos

Big data self paced online training videos

 

Big data self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides big data Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. big data self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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big data self paced online training (big data video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for big data online training videos

Cognos TM1 self paced online training videos

Cognos TM1 self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides cognos tm1 Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. cognos tm1 self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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cognos tm1 self paced online training (cognos tm1 video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for cognos tm1 online training videos

SAP FICO self paced online training videos

SAP FICO self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides sap fico Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. sap fico self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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sap fico self paced online training (sap fico video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for sap fico online training videos

SAP BO self paced online training videos

SAP BO self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides sap bo Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. sap bo self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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sap bo self paced online training (sap bo video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for sap bo online training videos

Oracle DBA self paced online training videos

Oracle DBA self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides oracle dba Online Training in live, real-time and interactive.Oracle DBA self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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oracle dba self paced online training (oracle dba video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for oracle dba online training videos

OBIEE self paced online training videos

OBIEE self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides obiee Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. OBIEE self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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obiee self paced online training (obiee video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for obiee online training videos

Microstrategy self paced online training videos

 Microstrategy self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides microstrategy Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. Microstrategy self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Microstrategy self paced online training (microstrategy video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for microstrategy online training videos

Java self paced online training videos

Java self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides java Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. java self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Java self paced online training (java video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

Core Java Self Paced Recordings: 4000 INR

Advanced Java&J2EE Recordings:8000 INR

Complete Package :12000 INR

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for java online training videos

MSBI self paced online training videos

MSBI selfpaced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides msbi Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. msbi self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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msbi self paced online training (msbi video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

MSBI Self paced Recordings Fees:8000 INR (SSIS,SSRS,SSAS) (Complete Package)

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for msbi online training videos

Teradata self paced online training videos

Teradata self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides teradata Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. teradata self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Teradata self paced online training (teradata video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for teradata online training videos

SAP ABAP self paced online training videos

Sap ABAP self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides sap abap Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. sap abap self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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sap abap self paced online training (sap abap video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for sap abap online training videos

Business Analyst self paced online training videos

Business Analyst self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides business analyst Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. business analyst self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Business analyst self paced online training (business analyst video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for business analyst online training videos

SAP BI self Paced online training videos

SAP BI self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides sap bi Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. sap bi self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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SAP BI self paced online training (sap bi video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for sap bi online training videos

Sharepoint self paced online training videos

Sharepoint self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides sharepoint  Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. sharepoint self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Sharepoint self paced online training (sharepoint video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for sharepoint online training videos

Tableau self paced online training videos

Tableau self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides tableau Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. tableau self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Tableau self paced online training (tableau video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

Tableau Recordings Fees: 10000 INR (copmplete Package).

Tableau Online training (Tableau Live Training/Tableau expert training) :22000 INR

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for tableau online training videos

informatica self paced online training videos

informatica self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides informatica Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. informatica self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

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Informatica self paced online training (informatica video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

If you select combo package (Two courses self paced training ),You will get 20% discount.

Please click here for Register for informatica online training videos

Cognos selfpaced online training videos

Cognos self paced online training videos:

RVH Technologies provides IBM Cognos 10 Online Training in live, real-time and interactive. Cognos self paced online training videos for very affordable price with high quality.

Online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced learning and online training courses.

Cognos selfpaced online training videos

Cognos self paced online training (Cognos video based online training) for very affordable fees with support.

Cognos self paced online training videos for only 10000 INR.

Cognos TM1 selfpaced online training videos for only 10000 INR.

If you select combo package 18000 INR for Cognos and TM1 online training videos (Combo package)  

Please click here for Register for Cognos online training videos:

 

Online training videos|Selfpaced training videos|Low cost online training

Online training Videos |Self-paced Online training:

RVH technologies is one of the best online training providers from india .For getting online training videos of any technology or self paced online training or Live online training one and only training provider from india for very affordable price .

Self-paced online training videos:(Video Based Online training) :

When it comes to up skilling yourself and developing your career, there are plenty of opportunities available to take up professional development and training courses. 

However, it’s also important to note that everyone has different learning styles and some types of training courses may be better suited to your own individual requirements than others. 

online live learning can be a great avenue for many people, but if you prefer to have great control over the pace of your own development and training, it’s worthwhile taking a closer look at the benefits of self-paced online training and online training courses.

Work at your own pace.

One of the biggest benefits of taking up a self-paced training course is that you can control the pace and you have the ability to direct your own learning within a specified framework.

This can be very useful for people who wouldn’t be able to commit to a regular classroom-based course, or for anyone who prefers flexibility in their learning system.

With self-paced learning, you can control how much time you spend on a particular unit or module within the course, rather than having to conform to a pace set by an external instructor or class structure.

 Cheaper fees:

Taking up Self paced e-learning course means that you get all the benefits of reduced costs and cheaper fees.We are providing all software online training videos for very affordable price.We also Extended training vedeos to all the technologies for less price .

An online learning environment is significantly cheaper than a traditional classroom-based course as you won’t have to contribute towards the costs of securing a physical classroom space.

Based on the user requests,we started weekend batches also for all the courses.

Please register for selfpaced online training here , Please go thorough all those recordings and Take the Decision.

Online training Videos Available (With Support ):

1) cognos online training videos

2) Cognos TM1 online training videos

3) MSBI online training videos

4) Obiee online training videos

5) Core and Advanced java online training videos

6) Qlikview online training videos

7) Informatica online training videos

8) Sap fico onine training videos

And all the Sap Modules online training videos available ….

Additional Features:


If you take two course videos ,You will get 25 % Discount on whole Price.

If you take 3 course ,30 % discount.

More than that 40 % Discount….Hurry UP

 

Aptitude questions and answers with explanation by experts

Top most important Aptitude interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of  Top most important Aptitude interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download aptitude interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these aptitude interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

Tableau interview questions

Top most important Tableau interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of  Top most important Tableau interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download tableau interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these tableau interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

 If you want to become an expert in tableau ,Register for Tableau online training here.

1) Who are the founders of Tableau?
The company was founded in Mountain View, California in January, 2003 by Chris Stolte, Christian Chabot and Pat Hanrahan.
2) What is Tableau Software?
Tableau is business intelligence software that allows anyone to easily connect to data, then visualize and create interactive, sharable dashboards. It’s easy enough that any Excel user can learn it, but powerful enough to satisfy even the most complex analytical problems. Securely sharing your findings with others only takes seconds.
3) What are the five main product offered by Tableau company?
Tableau offers five main products: Tableau Desktop, Tableau Server, Tableau Online, Tableau reader and Tableau Public.
4) What is the current latest version of Tableau Desktop(as of Feb.2015)?
Current versions: Tableau Desktop version 9
5) What is data visualization?
Data visualization refers to the techniques used to communicate data or information by encoding it as visual objects (e.g. points, lines or bars) contained in graphics.
6) What is Tableau Desktop?
Tableau Desktop is based on breakthrough technology from Stanford University that lets you drag & drop to analyze data. It is great data visualization tool, you can connect to data in a few clicks, then visualize and crate interactive dashboards with a few more.

7) What is Tableau Server?
Tableau Server is browser- and mobile-based insight anyone can use. Publish dashboards with Tableau Desktop and share them throughout your organization. It’s easy to set up and even easier to run.
8) What is Tableau Public?
Tableau Public is a free service that lets anyone publish interactive data to the web. Once on the web, anyone can interact with the data, download it, or create their own visualizations of it. No programming skills are required. Be sure to look at the gallery to see some of the things people have been doing with it.
9) Why Tableau?
Whether your data is in an on-premise database, a database, a data warehouse, a cloud application or an Excel file, you can analyze it with Tableau. You can create views of your data and share it with colleagues, customers, and partners. You can use Tableau to blend it with other data. And you can keep your data up to date automatically.
10) How does Tableau perform with huge datasets?
Tableau Performance is based on Data source performance. If data source takes more time to execute a query then Tableau must wait up to that time
11) What are the differences between Tableau Software GoodData and Traditional BI (Business Objects, etc.)?
At high level there are four major differences.How to view sql which is generated by Tab
12) What are Dimensions and Facts?
Dimensions is nothing but the descriptive text columns and facts are nothing but measures (numerical values) dimension ex: Product Name, City. Facts:Sales, profit
13) What is the difference between heat map and tree map?
A heat map is a great way to compare categories using color and size. In this, you can compare two different measures. Tree map is a very powerful visualization, particularly for illustrating hierarchical (tree – structured) data and part – to – whole relationships.
14) How to view sql which is generated by Tableau Desktop?
The Tableau Desktop Log files are located in C:\Users\\My Documents\My Tableau Repository. If you have a live connection to the data source, check the log.txt and tabprotosrv.txt files. If you are using an extract, check the tdeserver.txt file. The tabprotosrv.txt file often shows detailed information about queries.
15) How will you publish and schedule workbook in tableau server?
First create a schedule for particular time and then create extract for the data source and publish the workbook for the server. Before you publish, there is a option called Scheduling and Authentication, click on that and select the schedule from the drop down which is created and publish. Also publish data source and assign the schedule. This schedule will automatically run for the assigned time and the workbook is refreshed.
16) How Does Tableau Work?
While Tableau lets you analyze databases and spreadsheets like never before, you don’t need to know anything about databases to use Tableau. In fact, Tableau is designed to allow business people with no technical training to analyze their data efficiently.Tableau is based on three simple concepts:
Connect: Connect Tableau to any database that you want to analyze.
Note that Tableau does not import the data. Instead it queries to the database directly.
Analyze: Analyzing data means viewing it, filtering it, sorting it, performing calculations on it, reorganizing it, summarizing it, and so on.Using Tableau you can do all of these things by simply arranging fields of your data source on a Tableau worksheet. When you drop a field on a worksheet, Tableau queries the data using standard drivers and query languages (like SQL and MDX) and presents a visual analysis of the data.
Share: You can share results with others either by sharing workbooks with other Tableau users, by pasting results into applications such as Microsoft Office, printing to PDF or by using Tableau Server to publish or embed your views across your organization.
What are the difference between tableau 7.0 and 8.0 versions?
New visualizations are introduced like tree map bubble chart and box and whisker plot
We can copy worksheet directly from one workbook to another Workbook
Introduced R script
17) What are the features of Tableau 8.3?
With Kerboros support, Tableau 8.3 advances enterprise-grade data analysis with these enhancements:
Provides seamless, single sign-on experience from Tableau client to back-end data sources
Protects sensitive data with delegated access and viewer credential management
Connects to live data sources through stable, automated back-end authentication
Leverages existing IT investments in enterprise-grade authentication and data security
Supports smart card authentication
18) How do I automate reports using Tableau software?
You need to publish report to tableau server, while publishing you will find one option to schedule reports.You just need to select the time when you want to refresh data.
Speed
How fast can you get up and running with the system, answer questions, design and share dashboards and then change them? This is Where systems like Tableau and GoodData are far better than old – school business intelligence like Business Objects or Cognos. Traditional systems took months or years to intelligence like Business Objects or Cognos. Traditional systems took months or years to implement, with costs running to millions. Tableau has a free trail that installs in minutes and GoodData is cloud – based, so they are faster to implement by orders of magnitude. They are also faster to results: traditional BI requires IT and developers to make any changes to reports, so business users are struck in a queue waiting to get anything done. Tableau and GoodData provide more of a self – service experience.
Analysis layer
This is where Tableau excels. It has a powerful and flexible drag & drop visualization engine based on some technology from Stanford. Traditional BI typically provide some canned reports but changing them requires significant time and money.
Data layer
This is where the three options are most different:
GoodData requires you to move your data to its cloud. Traditional BI typically requires you to move your data to its data warehouse system. Tableau connects to a variety of existing data source and also provides a fast in – memory data engine, essentially a local database. Since most enterprises have their data stored all over the place, this provides the most choice and lets companies use the investment they’ve already made.
Enterprise readiness.
19) What is a parameter in Tableau ? And how it works.?
Parameters are dynamic values that can replace constant values in calculations and can serve as filters
What are Filters? How many types of filters are there in Tableau?
Filter is nothing but it is restricted to unnecessary, it is showing exact data. Basically filters are 3 types.
Quick filter
Context filter
Datasource filter
20) What is the difference between context filter to other filters?
Whenever we crate context filter >> Tableau will create a temporary table for this particular filter set and other filters will be apply on context filter data like cascade parameters… suppose we have crated context filter on countries >> we have chosen country as USA and India >> Tableau will create a temporary table for this two countries data and if you have any other filers >>other will be apply on this two countries data if we don’t have any context filter >> each and individual record will check for all filters
21) What is disadvantage of context filters?
The context filter is not frequently changed by the user – if the filter is changed the database must recomputed and rewrite the temporary table, slowing performance.
When you set a dimension to context, Tableau crates a temporary table that will require a reload each time the view is initiated. For Excel, Access and text data sources, the temporary table created is in an Access table format. For SQL Server, My SQL and Oracle data sources, you must have permission to create a temporary table on your server. For multidimensional data source, or cubes, temporary tables are not crated, and context filters only defined which filters are independent and dependent.
What is the Difference between quick filter and Normal filter in tableau?
Quick filter is used to view the filtering options and can be used to select the option. Normal filer is something you can limit the options from the list or use some conditions to limit the data by field or value.
22) What is benefit of Tableau extract file over the live connection?
Extract can be used anywhere without any connection and you can build your own visualizations without connecting to Database.
23) How to combine two excel files with same fields but different data (different years)?
I have 5 different excel files (2007.xls, 2008.xls..2011.xls) with same fields (film name, genre, budge, rating, profitability) but with data from different year (2007 to 2011). Can someone tell me how can I combine the film name, genre and profitability so that I can see the visualization of 2007 to 2011 in a single chart.
24) What is the Max no of tables we can join in Tableau?
We can join max 32 table, it’s not possible to combine more than 32 tables.
25) How does the integration of Tableau with R works?
R is a popular open-source environment for statistical analysis. Tableau Desktop can now connect to R through calculated fields and take advantage of R functions, libraries, and packages and even saved models. These calculations dynamically invoke the R engine and pass values to R via the Rserve package, and are returned back to Tableau.
Tableau Server can also be configured to connect to an instance of Rserve through the tabadmin utility, allowing anyone to view a dashboard containing R functionality.
Combining R with Tableau gives you the ability to bring deep statistical analysis into a drag-and-drop visual analytics environment.
26) What is Page shelf?
Page shelf is power full part of tableau That you can use to control the display of output as well as printed results of output.
27) How can we combine database and flat file data in tableau desktop?
Connect data two times, one for database tables and one for flat file. The Data->Edit Relationships
Give a join condition on common column from db tables to flat file
28) How to add custom Color to Tableau?
Create Custom Color code in “Preferences.tps”
Navigation ::: Documents » My Table Repository »Preferences.tps
Add custom color code Note: In tableau 9.0 version we have color picker option.

29) How to design a view to show region wise profit and sales.I did not want line and bar chat should be used for profit and sales?
Generate the Map using cities –>then Drag the Profit and sales to the Details–>Add the state as Quick filter

30) How to create cascading filters without context filter ?
I have filterl and filter2..Based on filterl I need to filter2 data
Ex: Filterl as Country and Filter 2: States
I have chosen country as USA and filter2 should display only USA states
Choose options of Filter2 states :
select option of “Only relevant values “
31) What is dual axis?
To display two measure in one graph
32) What is blended axis?
Multiple Measures are shown in single axis and also all the marks shown in single pane
Drag a dimension in a column
Drag the first measure in column
Drag 2nd measure in existing axis
Http://onlinehelp.tableau.com/current/pro/online/mac/en-
Us/multiplemeasures_blendedaxes.html

33) What is Data Visualization?
A much advanced, direct, precise and ordered way of viewing large volumes of data is called data visualization. It is the visual representation of data in the form of graphs and charts, especially when you can’t define it textually. You can show trends, patters and correlations through various data visualization software and tools; Tableau is one such data visualization software used by businesses and corporates.
34) What are the differences between Tableau desktop and Tableau Server?
While Tableau desktop performs data visualization and workbook creation, Tableau server is used to distribute these interactive workbooks and/or reports to the right audience. Users can edit and update the workbooks and dashboards online or Server but cannot create new ones. However, there are limited editing options when compared to desktop.
Tableau Public is again a free tool consisting of Desktop and Server components accessible to anyone.
35) Define parameters in Tableau and their working.
Tableau parameters are dynamic variables/values that replace the constant values in data calculations and filters. For instance, you can create a calculated field value returning true when the score is greater than 80, and otherwise false. Using parameters, one can replace the constant value of 80 and control it dynamically in the formula.

36) Differentiate between parameters and filters in Tableau.
The difference actually lies in the application. Parameters allow users to insert their values, which can be integers, float, date, string that can be used in calculations. However, filters receive only values users choose to ‘filter by’ the list, which cannot be used to perform calculations.
Users can dynamically change measures and dimensions in parameter but filters do not approve of this feature.
37) What are fact table and Dimension table in Tableau?
—>Facts are the numeric metrics or measurable quantities of the data, which can be analyzed by dimension table. Facts are stores in Fact table that contain foreign keys referring uniquely to the associated dimension tables. The fact table supports data storage at atomic level and thus, allows more number of records to be inserted at one time. For instance, a Sales Fact table can have product key, customer key, promotion key, items sold, referring to a specific event.
—>Dimensions are the descriptive attribute values for multiple dimensions of each attribute, defining multiple characteristics. A dimension table ,having reference of a product key form the fact table, can consist of product name, product type, size, color, description, etc.

38) What are Quick Filters in Tableau?
Global quick filters are a way to filter each worksheet on a dashboard until each of them contains a dimension. They are very useful for worksheets using the same data source, which sometimes proves to a disadvantage and generate slow results. Thus, parameters are more useful.
39) State limitations of parameters in Tableau.
Parameters facilitate only four ways to represent data on a dashboard (which are seven in quick filters). Further, parameters do not allow multiple selections in a filter.
40) What is aggregation and disaggregation of data in Tableau?
Aggregation and disaggregation in Tableau are the ways to develop a scatterplot to compare and measure data values. As the name suggests, aggregation is the calculated form of a set of values that return a single numeric value. For instance, a measure with values 1,3,5,7 returns 1. You can also set a default aggregation for any measure, which is not user-defined. Tableau supports various default aggregations for a measure like Sum, average, Median, Count and others.
Disaggregating data refers to viewing each data source row, while analyzing data both independently and dependently.
41) What is Data Blending?
Unlike Data Joining, Data Blending in tableau allows combining of data from different sources and platforms. For instance, you can blend data present in an Excel file with that of an Oracle DB to create a new dataset.
42) What is Content Filter?
The concept of context filter in Tableau makes the process of filtering smooth and straightforward. It establishes a filtering hierarchy where all other filters present refer to the context filter for their subsequent operations. The other filters now process data that has been passed through the context filter.
Creating one or more context filters improves performance as users do not have to create extra filters on large data source, reducing the query-execution time.
You can create by dragging a filed into ‘Filters’ tab and then, Right-Click that field and select ‘’Add to Context”.

43) What are the limitations of context filters?
Tableau takes time to place a filter in context. When a filter is set as context one, the software creates a temporary table for that particular context filter. This table will reload each time and consists of all values that are not filtered by either Context or Custom SQL filter.
44) Name the file extensions in Tableau.
There are a number of file types and extensions in Tableau:
• Tableau Workbook (.twb)
• Tableau Packaged Workbook (.twbx)
• Tableau Datasource (.tds)
• Tableau Packaged Datasource (.tdsx)
• Tableau Data extract (.tde)
• Tableau Bookmark (.tdm)
• Tableau Map Source (.tms)
• Tableau Preferences (.tps)
45) Explain the difference between .twb and .twbx
.twb is the most common file extension used in Tableau, which presents an XML format file and comprises all the information present in each dashboard and sheet like what fields are used in the views, styles and formatting applied to a sheet and dashboard.
But this workbook does not contain any data. The Packaged workbook merges the information in a Tableau workbook with the local data available (which is not on server). .twbx serves as a zip file, which will include custom images if any. Packaged Workbook allows users to share their workbook information with other Tableau Desktop users and let them open it in Tableau Reader.
46) What are Extracts and Schedules in Tableau server?
Data extracts are the first copies or subdivisions of the actual data from original data sources. The workbooks using data extracts instead of those using live DB connections are faster since the extracted data is imported in Tableau Engine.
After this extraction of data, users can publish the workbook, which also publishes the extracts in Tableau Server. However, the workbook and extracts won’t refresh unless users apply a scheduled refresh on the extract. Scheduled Refreshes are the scheduling tasks set for data extract refresh so that they get refreshed automatically while publishing a workbook with data extract. This also removes the burden of republishing the workbook every time the concerned data gets updated.
47) Name the components of a Dashboard
• Horizontal- Horizontal layout containers allow the designer to group worksheets and dashboard components left to right across your page and edit the height of all elements at once.
• Vertical- Vertical containers allow the user to group worksheets and dashboard components top to bottom down your page and edit the width of all elements at once.
• Text
• Image Extract: – A Tableau workbook is in XML format. In order to extracts images, Tableau applies some codes to extract an image which can be stored in XML.
• Web [URL ACTION]:- A URL action is a hyperlink that points to a Web page, file, or other web-based resource outside of Tableau. You can use URL actions to link to more information about your data that may be hosted outside of your data source. To make the link relevant to your data, you can substitute field values of a selection into the URL as parameters.
48) How to view underlying SQL Queries in Tableau?
Viewing underlying SQL Queries in Tableau provides two options:
• Create a Performance Recording to record performance information about the main events you interact with workbook. Users can view the performance metrics in a workbook created by Tableau.
Help> Settings and Performance> Start Performance Recording
Help> Setting and Performance > Stop Performance Recording
• Reviewing the Tableau Desktop Logs located at C:\Users\\My Documents\My Tableau Repository. For live connection to data source, you can check log.txt and tabprotosrv.txt files. For an extract, check tdeserver.txt file.
49) What is Page shelf?
Tableau provides a distinct and powerful tool to control the output display known as Page shelf. As the name suggests, the page shelf fragments the view into a series of pages, presenting a different view on each page, making it more user-friendly and minimizing scrolling to analyze and view data and information. You can flip through the pages using the specified controls and compare them at a common axle.
50) How to do Performance Testing in Tableau?
Performance testing is again an important part of implementing tableau. This can be done by loading Testing Tableau Server with TabJolt, which is a “Point and Run” load generator created to perform QA. While TabJolt is not supported by tableau directly, it has to be installed using other open source products.
51) Explain the concept of Dual Axis.
Dual Axis is an excellent phenomenon supported by Tableau that helps users view two scales of two measures in the same graph. Many websites like Indeed.com and other make use of dual axis to show the comparison between two measures and their growth rate in a septic set of years. Dual axes let you compare multiple measures at once, having two independent axes layered on top of one another.

52) How many maximum tables can you join in Tableau?
The maximum number of 32 tables can be joined in Tableau. A table size must also be limited to 255 columns (fields).
53) How to remove ‘All’ options from a Tableau auto-filter?
The auto-filter provides a feature of removing ‘All’ options by simply clicking the down arrow in the auto-filter heading. You can scroll down to ‘Customize’ in the dropdown and then uncheck the ‘Show “All” Value’ attribute. It can be activated by checking the field again.

54) What different products Tableau provide?
• Tableau Server : on-premise or cloud-hosted software to access the workbooks built
• Tableau desktop: desktop environment to create and publish standard and packaged workbooks.
• Tableau Public: workbooks available publicly online for users to download and access the included data.
• Tableau Reader: get a local access to open Tableau Packaged workbook

55) How can you display top five and last five sales in the same view?
Create two sets, one for top 5 another for bottom 5 and the join these two sets displaying a unique set of total 10 rows.
56) What is TDE file?
TDE is a Tableau desktop file that contains a .tde extension. It refers to the file that contains data extracted from external sources like MS Excel, MS Access or CSV file.
There are two aspects of TDE design that make them ideal for supporting analytics and data discovery.
• Firstly, TDE is a columnar store
• The second is how they are structured which impacts how they are loaded into memory and used by Tableau. This is an important aspect of how TDEs are “architecture aware”. Architecture-awareness means that TDEs use all parts of your computer memory, from RAM to hard disk, and put each part to work what best fits its characteristics.
57) How to use group in calculated field?
By adding the same calculation to ‘Group By’ clause in SQL query or creating a Calculated Field in the Data Window and using that field whenever you want to group the fields.
• Using groups in a calculation. You cannot reference ad-hoc groups in a calculation
• Blend data using groups created in the secondary data source: Only calculated groups can be used in data blending if the group was created in the secondary data source.
• Use a group in another workbook. You can easily replicate a group in another workbook by copy and pasting a calculation.
58) Can parameters have dropdown list?
Yes, parameters do have their independent dropdown lists enabling users to view the data entries available in the parameter during its creation.
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1.What are the modes of TIBCO BW Installations ?
• GUI mode
• Console mode
• Silent mode
2.If you have installed a particular version of TIBCO software e.g. TIBCO BW X.Y.Z, What are X, Y and Z number stands for?
Integration can be at different application layers:
• X:Patch
• Y:Major
• Z:Minor

3.What is the role of TRA?
TRA stands for TIBCO Runtime Agent.
The TRA has two main functions:
• Supplies an agent that is running in the background on each machine.
1. The agent is responsible for starting and stopping processes that run on a machine according to the deployment information.
2. The agent monitors the machine. That information is then visible via TIBCO Administrator.
• Supplies the run-time environment, that is, all shared libraries including third-party libraries.

4. What are the revision control system options available in TIBCO designer?
• File sharing
• VSS
• Perforce
• XML Canon
• ClearCase
• iPlanet
• CVS
• PVCS
5. What are the different modes of service invocation?
Services can be invoked in several ways.
• A one-way operation is executed once and does not wait for a response.
• A request-response operation is executed once and waits for one response. In a request-response service, communication flows in both directions. The complete interaction consists of two point-to-point messages—a request and a response. The interaction is only considered complete after the response has arrived.
• Publication (notification) means an operation sends information on an as-needed basis, potentially multiple times.
• Subscription means incoming information is processed on an as-needed basis, potentially multiple times.
6.What is vcrepo.dat?
TIBCO Designer creates a file named vcrepo.dat in the project root directory when you first save the project. This file is used to store properties such as display name, TIBCO Rendezvous encoding, and description. This file can be used for identification in place of the project root directory and can be used as the repository locator string (repoUrl).
7.What are the TIBCO BW activities that can participate in transactions?
Not all TIBCO BusinessWorks activities can participate in a transaction. Only the following types of activities have transactional capabilities:
• JDBC activities
• JMS activities
• ActiveEnterprise Adapter activities that use JMS transports
• EJB activities
• TIBCO iProcess BusinessWorks Connector activities

8.What are the different types of Transactions TIBCO provides?
TIBCO BusinessWorks offers a variety of types of transactions that can be used in different situations. You can use the type of transaction that suits the needs of your integration project. When you create a transaction group, you must specify the type of transaction. TIBCO BusinessWorks supports the following types of transactions:
• JDBC
• Java Transaction API (JTA) UserTransaction
• XA Transaction
9.What activities are supported in JTA Transaction?
The Java Transaction API (JTA) UserTransaction type allows:
• JDBC
• JMS
• ActiveEnterprise Adapter (using JMS transports)
• EJB activities
to participate in transactions.

10.What activities are supported in XA Transaction ?
The XA Transaction type allows:
• JDBC activities
• ActiveEnterprise Adapter activities that use the JMS transport
• JMS activities
to participate in transactions.
Note:For JMS activities and ActiveEnterprise Adapter activities, request/reply operations cannot participate in an XA transaction. Also, EJB activities cannot participate in an XA Transaction group.
11.What are the possible Error output’s of Read File activity?
Integration can be at different application layers:
• FileNotFoundException :Thrown when yhe file does not exist.
• UnsupportedEncodingException:Thrown when the text file’s encoding is not valid and the content of the file is read into process data.
• FileIOException :Thrown when an I/O exception occurred when trying to read the file.
12.What is the purpose of the inspector activity ?
The Inspector activity is used to write the output of any or all activities and process variables to a file and/or stdout. This is particularly useful when debugging process definitions and you wish to see the entire schema instead of mapping specific elements to the Write File activity.
13.What are the maximum/minimum of threads available for incoming HTTP ?
The maximum/minimum of threads available for incoming HTTP : 75/10
14. How can unauthorized users be prevented from triggering a process ?
Unauthorized users be prevented from triggering a process by giving ‘write’ access for the process engine to only selected users. Only users with ‘write’ access can do activities like deploying applications, starting/stopping process engines etc.
15.What are the mandatory configuration parameters for FTP Connection & FTP with firewall ?
The mandatory configuration parameters for FTP Connection
• FTP host
• Port
• Username & Password>
If Firewall is enabled in addition the proxy host and port are required.

16.how to design a process such that depending on number of records updated in a database, 3 different sub-processes may be called ?
Define 3 transitions from JDBC update with condition on the no of updates and call appropriate child processes.
17.How to use legacy .data file format with latest designer ?
Convert .dat file to multi file project using Administration tab while starting up Designer(Other one being Project tab) and then open the multi file project in the normal way.

18.What are the encodings supported by designer ?
Encodings supported by designer are
• ISO8859-1(Latin-1)
• UTF-8
19.What are the 4 main panels of the Designer window ?
The 4 main panels of the Designer window are
• Project panel
• Palette panel
• Design panel
• Configuration panel
20.How do you determine if there are broken references in the project?
Project -> Validate for deployment

21.Where are the Designer preferences stored ?
Designer preferences stored are stores in a file called ‘Designer <ver>.prefs’ in the user home directory.
22.Explain the process configuration parameters – Max Jobs, Flow Limit & Activation Limit ?
• Max Jobs :
Max Jobs specifies the number of process instances that are kept in memmory. Once this limit is reached newly created process instances (subject to flow limit) are paged out to disk.0 specifies no limit and is the default.
• Flow Limit :
Flow Limit specifies the maximum number of running process instances that are spawned before the process starter is suspended ie it enters a FLOW_CONTROLLED state and does not accept new events. This can be used to control the number of process instances running simultaneously and when the protocol generating the event can store the event till it is received, like email servers, JMS, RV etc. 0 specifies no limit and is the default.
• Activation Limit :
Activation limit flag specifies that once a process instance is loaded it must be placed in memory till it completes execution. By default it is enabled.
23.What are the options for configuring storage for process engine’s checkpoint repository ?
The options for configuring storage for process engine’s checkpoint repository are:
• Local File
• Database. Fault tolerant engines can recover from a checkpoint only when database is used.
24.Process engines in a fault tolerant group can be configured as peers or master secondary.How do these differ ?
The options for configuring storage for process engine’s checkpoint repository are:
• – Peer means all of them have the same weight. In this case when one engine fails another one takes over and continues processing till it fails.
• – In master secondary configuration weights are unequal, the secondary starts processing when master fails. But when master recovers, secondary stops and master continues processing.
25.What are the uses of grouping activities ?
Uses of grouping activities are:
• Create a set of activities having a common error transition.
• Repeat group of activities based on a condition.
1. – Iterate over a list.
2. – Repeat until condition true.
3. – Repeat on Error until condition true.
• Group activities into a transaction.
• To create a critical section area that synchronizes process instances.
• A ‘Pick First Group’ allows you to wait for the occurrence of multiple events and proceed along a path following the first event to occur.
26.What is the purpose of a Lock shared configuration resource?
A Lock is specified for a ‘Critical Section’ group when the scope is ‘Multiple’. It can be used to ensure synchronization across process instances belonging to multiple processs definitions or for process instances across engines(Check multi engine flag for lock in this case and the BW engine needs to be configured with database persistence while deployment). If synchronization is for process instances belonging to the same processs definition inside one engine, just specify the scope as ‘Single’.
27.How to control the sequence of execution of process instances created by a process starter ?
Use the sequencing key field in the Misc tab of any process starter. Process instances with the same value for this field are executed in the sequence in which they are started.
28.Can there be two error transitions out of an activity ?
No. There can be only one Error and one Success if no matching condition transition out of each activity.
29.When is a ‘No Action’ group used ?
‘No Action’ group used to have a set of activities having a common error transition

30.What activity can be used to set the value of a ‘User defined process variable’ ?
The ‘Assign’ activity can be used to set the value of a ‘User defined process variable’.

31.Which are the two process variables available to all activities with inputs ?
• $_globalVariables
• $_processContext
32.Which mechanism can be used to pass data between a process instance and a called sub process other than mapping from/to the callee’s input/output ?
This can be accomplished using job shared variables, unless in the call process activity the ‘Spawn’ flag is enabled in which case the called sub process is a new job and hence gets a fresh copy of the job shared variable initialized as per its configuration. A shared variable can overcome this limitation as it’s scope is not limited to one job.

33.What are the three scenarios where BW engine has to be configured with database persistence instead of Local File ?
The three scenarios are:
• Shared Variables across BW engines.
• Locking across groups in multiple BW engines.
• Wait Notify across BW engines.
34.If you want a group to be executed if there is some unhandled error but subject to some max number of iterations which group do you use ?
We can use Repeat on Error until true

35.When is a ‘Generate Error’ activity useful?
When you handle an error inside a called subprocess or group and want to rethrow the error to the caller(happens by default if you dont handle the error in the called process)

36.Which activity is used for detecting duplicate message processing?
CheckPoint activity – Specify the uniqueID for the duplicate key field and engine maintains list of these key fields. When a process come to checkpoint activity with the same value for duplicate key which already exists, it throws a DuplicateException. An error transition can then handle this case.
37.Give an example where graceful migration of service from one machine to another is not possible.
HTTP Receiver. In this case the receiver on new machine starts listening on the same port, but you need to redirect requests from the old machine to the new one.
38.What are the types of adapter services ?
Types of adapter services are :
• Subscriber Service
• Publisher Service
• Request-Response Service
• Request-Response Invocation Service
39.If the business process needs to invoke another web service which resource do you use ?
SOAP request reply activity. If the business process needs to be exposed as SOAP service use SOAP Event Source in conjunction with SOAP Send Reply or SOAP Send Fault.

40.What is the functionality of the Retrieve Resources resource?
It can be used to serve the wsdl file of a SOAP Event Source to a (http) client.
Construct a process like: HTTP Receiver -> Retrieve Resources -> Send HTTP Response

Now the WSDL file for a SOAP service can be retreived using the http request

http://://?wsdl

where ‘path’ is the folder path to the SOAP Event Source process and ‘resourceName’ is the name of the process

Example : http://purch:8877/Purchasing/GetPurchaseOrder?wsdl

41.What is the scope of user defined process variables ?
The scope of user defined process variables is only the process in which it is defined.(Not even inside a sub process that is invoked from this process)
42.What is difference between shared variable and job shared variable ?
• Both of them can be manipulated via the palette resources ‘Get shared variable’ and ‘Set shared variable’.
• A job shared variable is private to one instance of job or in other words each job has a fresh copy. In the case of shared variable the same copy is shared across all job instances. It can even be persisted and can survive BW engine restarts and even shared across multiple BW engines(when deployed using DB persistence).

43.How do wait-notify resources work ?
Basically wait and notify should share a common notification configuration which is just a schema definition for data that will be passed from notifier to waiter. Specific instances of waiter & notifier are corrrelated via a key.
For example: when one process is in wait state for key ‘Order-1’, it waits till another process issues a notification with the same key value.

44.What is the default Axis in XPath ?
Child axis- What this means is that when you select “BOOK” from the current context, it selects a child node with that name, not a sibling with that name. Other axes are parent , self , sibling etc.

45.What are the output formats for XSLT?
• XML
• HTML
• Text

46.What is the Purpose of $_error variable ?
$_error variable is available in the node following the error transition. It captures the error message, error code etc.
47.What are the cases where business process cant proceed correctly subsequent to restart from a checkpoint ?
• Sending HTTP response, confirming an email/jms message etc. This is because the confirmation or sending HTTP response has to done in the same session. When engine crashes these sessions are closed at their socket level. In such cases send response/confirm before checkpoint.

48.Which group do you use to wait for multiple events and proceed with the first to occur ?
A ‘Pick First Group’.

 

 

Selenium interview questions

Top most important selenium interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important selenium interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download selenium interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these selenium interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

If you want to become an expert in selenium ,Register for selenium online training here.

 

1) What is Automation Testing?
Automation testing or Test Automation is a process of automating the manual process to test the application/system under test. Automation testing involves use to a separate testing tool which lets you create test scripts which can be executed repeatedly and doesn’t require any manual intervention.
2) What are the benefits of Automation Testing?
Benefits of Automation testing are:
1. Supports execution of repeated test cases
2. Aids in testing a large test matrix
3. Enables parallel execution
4. Encourages unattended execution
5. Improves accuracy thereby reducing human generated errors
6. Saves time and money
3) Why should Selenium be selected as a test tool?
Selenium
1. is free and open source
2. have a large user base and helping communities
3. have cross Browser compatibility (Firefox, chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari etc.)
4. have great platform compatibility (Windows, Mac OS, Linux etc.)
5. supports multiple programming languages (Java, C#, Ruby, Python, Pearl etc.)
6. has fresh and regular repository developments
7. supports distributed testing
4) What is Selenium? What are the different Selenium components?
Selenium is one of the most popular automated testing suites. Selenium is designed in a way to support and encourage automation testing of functional aspects of web based applications and a wide range of browsers and platforms. Due to its existence in the open source community, it has become one of the most accepted tools amongst the testing professionals.
Selenium is not just a single tool or a utility, rather a package of several testing tools and for the same reason it is referred to as a Suite. Each of these tools is designed to cater different testing and test environment requirements.
The suite package constitutes of the following sets of tools:
• Selenium Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – Selenium IDE is a record and playback tool. It is distributed as a Firefox Plugin.
• Selenium Remote Control (RC) – Selenium RC is a server that allows user to create test scripts in a desired programming language. It also allows executing test scripts within the large spectrum of browsers.
• Selenium WebDriver – WebDriver is a different tool altogether that has various advantages over Selenium RC. WebDriver directly communicates with the web browser and uses its native compatibility to automate.
• Selenium Grid – Selenium Grid is used to distribute your test execution on multiple platforms and environments concurrently.
5) What are the testing types that can be supported by Selenium?
Selenium supports the following types of testing:
1. Functional Testing
2. Regression Testing
6) What are the limitations of Selenium?
Following are the limitations of Selenium:
• Selenium supports testing of only web based applications
• Mobile applications cannot be tested using Selenium
• Captcha and Bar code readers cannot be tested using Selenium
• Reports can only be generated using third party tools like TestNG or Junit.
• As Selenium is a free tool, thus there is no ready vendor support though the user can find numerous helping communities.
• User is expected to possess prior programming language knowledge.
7) When should I use Selenium IDE?
Selenium IDE is the simplest and easiest of all the tools within the Selenium Package. Its record and playback feature makes it exceptionally easy to learn with minimal acquaintances to any programming language. Selenium IDE is an ideal tool for a naïve user.
8) What is Selenese?
Selenese is the language which is used to write test scripts in Selenium IDE.
9) What are the different types of locators in Selenium?
Locator can be termed as an address that identifies a web element uniquely within the webpage. Thus, to identify web elements accurately and precisely we have different types of locators in Selenium:
• ID
• ClassName
• Name
• TagName
• LinkText
• PartialLinkText
• Xpath
• CSS Selector
• DOM
10) What is difference between assert and verify commands?
Assert: Assert command checks whether the given condition is true or false. Let’s say we assert whether the given element is present on the web page or not. If the condition is true then the program control will execute the next test step but if the condition is false, the execution would stop and no further test would be executed.
Verify: Verify command also checks whether the given condition is true or false. Irrespective of the condition being true or false, the program execution doesn’t halts i.e. any failure during verification would not stop the execution and all the test steps would be executed.
11) What is an Xpath?
Xpath is used to locate a web element based on its XML path. XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is used to store, organize and transport arbitrary data. It stores data in a key-value pair which is very much similar to HTML tags. Both being markup languages and since they fall under the same umbrella, Xpath can be used to locate HTML elements.
The fundamental behind locating elements using Xpath is the traversing between various elements across the entire page and thus enabling a user to find an element with the reference of another element.
12) What is the difference between “/” and “//” in Xpath?
Single Slash “/” – Single slash is used to create Xpath with absolute path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from the document node/start node.
Double Slash “//” – Double slash is used to create Xpath with relative path i.e. the xpath would be created to start selection from anywhere within the document.
13) What is Same origin policy and how it can be handled?
The problem of same origin policy disallows to access the DOM of a document from an origin that is different from the origin we are trying to access the document.
Origin is a sequential combination of scheme, host and port of the URL. For example, for a URL http:// http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/resources/, the origin is a combination of http, softwaretestinghelp.com, 80 correspondingly.
Thus the Selenium Core (JavaScript Program) cannot access the elements from an origin that is different from where it was launched. For Example, if I have launched the JavaScript Program from “http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com”, then I would be able to access the pages within the same domain such as “http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/resources” or “http://www.softwaretestinghelp.com/istqb-free-updates/”. The other domains like google.com, seleniumhq.org would no more be accessible.
So, In order to handle same origin policy, Selenium Remote Control was introduced.

14) What is Selenium 2.0 ?
Web testing tools Selenium RC and WebDriver are consolidated in single tool in Selenium 2.0
15) How will you find an element using Selenium?
In Selenium every object or control in a web page is referred as an elements, there are different ways to find an element in a web page they are
• ID
• Name
• Tag
• Attribute
• CSS
• Linktext
• PartialLink Text
• Xpath etc
16) List out the test types that are supported by Selenium?
For web based application testing selenium can be used
The test types can be supported are
a) Functional
b) Regression
For post release validation with continuous integration automation tool could be used
a) Jenkins
b) Hudson
c) Quick Build
d) CruiseCont
17) Mention what is the use of X-path?
X-Path is used to find the WebElement in web pages. It is also useful in identifying the dynamic elements.
18) Explain the difference between single and double slash in X-path?
Single slash ‘/ ’
• Single slash ( / ) start selection from the document node
• It allows you to create ‘absolute’ path expressions
Double Slash ‘// ’
• Double slash ( // ) start selection matching anywhere in the document
• It enables to create ‘relative’ path expressions

19) List out the technical challenges with Selenium?
Technical challenges with Selenium are
• Selenium supports only web based applications
• It does not support the Bitmap comparison
• For any reporting related capabilities have to depend on third party tools
• No vendor support for tool compared to commercial tools like HP UFT
• As there is no object repository concept in Selenium, maintainability of objects becomes difficult
20) What is the difference between type keys and type commands ?
TypeKeys() will trigger JavaScript event in most of the cases whereas .type() won’t. Type key populates the value attribute using JavaScript whereas .typekeys() emulates like actual user typing
21) What is the difference between verify and assert commands?
Assert: Assert allows to check whether an element is on the page or not. The test will stop on the step failed, if the asserted element is not available. In other words, the test will terminated at the point where check fails.
Verify: Verify command will check whether the element is on the page, if it is not then the test will carry on executing. In verification, all the commands are going to run guaranteed even if any of test fails.
22) What is JUnit Annotations and what are different types of annotations which are useful ?
In JAVA a special form of syntactic meta-data can be added to Java source code, this is know as Annotations. Variables, parameters, packages, methods and classes are annotated some of the JUnit annotations which can be useful are
• Test
• Before
• After
• Ignore
• BeforeClass
• AfterClass
• RunWith
23) While using click command can you use screen coordinate?
To click on specific part of element, you would need to use clickAT command. ClickAt command accepts element locator and x, y co-ordinates as arguments-
clickAt (locator, cordString)
24) What are the advantages of Selenium?
• It supports C#, PHP, Java, Perl, Phython
• It supports different OS like Windows, Linux and Mac OS
• It has got powerful methods to locate elements (Xpath, DOM , CSS)
• It has highly developer community supported by Google
25) What are the four parameter you have to pass in Selenium?
Four parameters that you have to pass in Selenium are
• Host
• Port Number
• Browser
• URL
26) What is the difference between setSpeed() and sleep() methods?
Both will delay the speed of execution.
Thread.sleep () : It will stop the current (java) thread for the specified period of time. Its done only once
• It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: thread.sleep(2000)- It will wait for 2 seconds
• It waits only once at the command given at sleep
SetSpeed () : For specific amount of time it will stop the execution for every selenium command.
• It takes a single argument in integer format
Ex: selenium.setSpeed(“2000”)- It will wait for 2 seconds
• Runs each command after setSpeed delay by the number of milliseconds mentioned in set Speed
This command is useful for demonstration purpose or if you are using a slow web application

27) What is same origin policy? How you can avoid same origin policy?
The “Same Origin Policy” is introduced for security reason, and it ensures that content of your site will never be accessible by a script from another site. As per the policy, any code loaded within the browser can only operate within that website’s domain.
To avoid “Same Origin Policy” proxy injection method is used, in proxy injection mode the Selenium Server acts as a client configured HTTP proxy , which sits between the browser and application under test and then masks the AUT under a fictional URL
28) What is heightened privileges browsers?
The purpose of heightened privileges is similar to Proxy Injection, allows websites to do something that are not commonly permitted. The key difference is that the browsers are launced in a special mode called heightened privileges. By using these browser mode, Selenium core can open the AUT directly and also read/write its content without passing the whole AUT through the Selenium RC server.
29) How you can use “submit” a form using Selenium ?
You can use “submit” method on element to submit form-
element.submit () ;
Alternatively you can use click method on the element which does form submission
30) What are the features of TestNG and list some of the functionality in TestNG which makes it more effective?
TestNG is a testing framework based on JUnit and NUnit to simplify a broad range of testing needs, from unit testing to integration testing. And the functionality which makes it efficient testing framework are
• Support for annotations
• Support for data-driven testing
• Flexible test configuration
• Ability to re-execute failed test cases
31) Mention what is the difference between Implicit wait and Explicit wait?
Implicit Wait: Sets a timeout for all successive Web Element searches. For the specified amount of time it will try looking for element again and again before throwing a NoSuchElementException. It waits for elements to show up.
Explicit Wait : It is a one-timer, used for a particular search.
32) Which attribute you should consider throughout the script in frame for “if no frame Id as well as no frame name”?
You can use…..driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//iframe”))….
This will return list of frames.
You will ned to switch to each and every frame and search for locator which we want.
Then break the loop
33) Explain what is the difference between find elements () and find element () ?
find element ():
It finds the first element within the current page using the given “locating mechanism”. It returns a single WebElement
findElements () : Using the given “locating mechanism” find all the elements within the current page. It returns a list of web elements.
34) Explain what are the JUnits annotation linked with Selenium?
The JUnits annotation linked with Selenium are
• @Before public void method() – It will perform the method () before each test, this method can prepare the test
• @Test public void method() – Annotations @Test identifies that this method is a test method environment
• @After public void method()- To execute a method before this annotation is used, test method must start with test@Before
35) Explain what is Datadriven framework and Keyword driven?
Datadriven framework: In this framework, the test data is separated and kept outside the Test Scripts, while test case logic resides in Test Scripts. Test data is read from the external files ( Excel Files) and are loaded into the variables inside the Test Script. Variables are used for both for input values and for verification values.
Keyworddriven framework: The keyword driven frameworks requires the development of data tables and keywords, independent of the test automation. In a keyword driven test, the functionality of the application under test is documented in a table as well as step by step instructions for each test.
36) Explain how you can login into any site if it’s showing any authentication popup for password and username?
Pass the username and password with url
• Syntax-http://username:password@url
• ex- http://creyate:tom@www.gmail.com
37) Explain how to assert text of webpage using selenium 2.0 ?
WebElement el = driver.findElement(By.id(“ElementID”))
//get test from element and stored in text variable
String text = el.getText();
//assert text from expected
Assert.assertEquals(“Element Text”, text);
38) What is Object Repository ?
An object repository is an essential entity in any UI automations which allows a tester to store all object that will be used in the scripts in one or more centralized locations rather than scattered all over the test scripts.
39) Explain how Selenium Grid works?
Selenium Grid sent the tests to the hub. These tests are redirected to Selenium Webdriver, which launch the browser and run the test. With entire test suite, it allows for running tests in parallel.
30) Can we use Selenium grid for performance testing?
Yes. But not as effectively as a dedicated performance testing tool like Loadrunner.

31) When should I use Selenium Grid?
Selenium Grid can be used to execute same or different test scripts on multiple platforms and browsers concurrently so as to achieve distributed test execution, testing under different environments and saving execution time remarkably.
32) What do we mean by Selenium 1 and Selenium 2?
Selenium RC and WebDriver, in a combination are popularly known as Selenium 2. Selenium RC alone is also referred as Selenium 1.
33) Which is the latest Selenium tool?
WebDriver
34) How do I launch the browser using WebDriver?
The following syntax can be used to launch Browser:
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();
35) What are the different types of Drivers available in WebDriver?
The different drivers available in WebDriver are:
• FirefoxDriver
• InternetExplorerDriver
• ChromeDriver
• SafariDriver
• OperaDriver
• AndroidDriver
• IPhoneDriver
• HtmlUnitDriver
36) What are the different types of waits available in WebDriver?
There are two types of waits available in WebDriver:
1. Implicit Wait
2. Explicit Wait
Implicit Wait: Implicit waits are used to provide a default waiting time (say 30 seconds) between each consecutive test step/command across the entire test script. Thus, subsequent test step would only execute when the 30 seconds have elapsed after executing the previous test step/command.
Explicit Wait: Explicit waits are used to halt the execution till the time a particular condition is met or the maximum time has elapsed. Unlike Implicit waits, explicit waits are applied for a particular instance only.
37) How to type in a textbox using Selenium?
User can use sendKeys(“String to be entered”) to enter the string in the textbox.
Syntax:
WebElement username = drv.findElement(By.id(“Email”));
// entering username
username.sendKeys(“sth”);
38) How can you find if an element in displayed on the screen?
WebDriver facilitates the user with the following methods to check the visibility of the web elements. These web elements can be buttons, drop boxes, checkboxes, radio buttons, labels etc.
1. isDisplayed()
2. isSelected()
3. isEnabled()
Syntax:
isDisplayed():
boolean buttonPresence = driver.findElement(By.id(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();
isSelected():
boolean buttonSelected = driver.findElement(By.id(“gbqfba”)).isDisplayed();
isEnabled():
boolean searchIconEnabled = driver.findElement(By.id(“gbqfb”)).isEnabled();
39) How can we get a text of a web element?
Get command is used to retrieve the inner text of the specified web element. The command doesn’t require any parameter but returns a string value. It is also one of the extensively used commands for verification of messages, labels, errors etc displayed on the web pages.
Syntax:
String Text = driver.findElement(By.id(“Text”)).getText();
40) How to select value in a dropdown?
Value in the drop down can be selected using WebDriver’s Select class.
Syntax:
selectByValue:
Select selectByValue = newSelect(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_One”)));
selectByValue.selectByValue(“greenvalue”);
selectByVisibleText:
Select selectByVisibleText = new Select (driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_Two”)));
selectByVisibleText.selectByVisibleText(“Lime”);
selectByIndex:
Select selectByIndex = newSelect(driver.findElement(By.id(“SelectID_Three”)));
selectByIndex.selectByIndex(2);
41) What are the different types of navigation commands?
Following are the navigation commands:
navigate().back() – The above command requires no parameters and takes back the user to the previous webpage in the web browser’s history.
Sample code:
driver.navigate().back();
navigate().forward() – This command lets the user to navigate to the next web page with reference to the browser’s history.
Sample code:
driver.navigate().forward();
navigate().refresh() – This command lets the user to refresh the current web page there by reloading all the web elements.
Sample code:
driver.navigate().refresh();
navigate().to() – This command lets the user to launch a new web browser window and navigate to the specified URL.
Sample code:
driver.navigate().to(“https://google.com”);
42) How to click on a hyper link using linkText?
driver.findElement(By.linkText(“Google”)).click();
The command finds the element using link text and then click on that element and thus the user would be re-directed to the corresponding page.
The above mentioned link can also be accessed by using the following command.
driver.findElement(By.partialLinkText(“Goo”)).click();
The above command find the element based on the substring of the link provided in the parenthesis and thus partialLinkText() finds the web element with the specified substring and then clicks on it.
43) How to handle frame in WebDriver?
An inline frame acronym as iframe is used to insert another document with in the current HTML document or simply a web page into a web page by enabling nesting.
Select iframe by id
driver.switchTo().frame(“ID of the frame“);
Locating iframe using tagName
driver.switchTo().frame(driver.findElements(By.tagName(“iframe”).get(0));
Locating iframe using index
frame(index)
driver.switchTo().frame(0);
frame(Name of Frame)
driver.switchTo().frame(“name of the frame”);
frame(WebElement element)
Select Parent Window
driver.switchTo().defaultContent();
44) When do we use findElement() and findElements()?
findElement(): findElement() is used to find the first element in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that only first matching element would be fetched.
Syntax:
WebElement element =driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
findElements(): findElements() is used to find all the elements in the current web page matching to the specified locator value. Take a note that all the matching elements would be fetched and stored in the list of WebElements.
Syntax:
List <WebElement> elementList =driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
45) How to find more than one web element in the list?
At times, we may come across elements of same type like multiple hyperlinks, images etc arranged in an ordered or unordered list. Thus, it makes absolute sense to deal with such elements by a single piece of code and this can be done using WebElement List.
Sample Code
1 // Storing the list
2 List <WebElement> elementList = driver.findElements(By.xpath(“//div[@id=’example’]//ul//li”));
3 // Fetching the size of the list
4 int listSize = elementList.size();
5 for (int i=0; i<listSize; i++)
6 {
7 // Clicking on each service provider link
8 serviceProviderLinks.get(i).click();
9 // Navigating back to the previous page that stores link to service providers
10 driver.navigate().back();
11 }
46) What is the difference between driver.close() and driver.quit command?
close(): WebDriver’s close() method closes the web browser window that the user is currently working on or we can also say the window that is being currently accessed by the WebDriver. The command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.
quit(): Unlike close() method, quit() method closes down all the windows that the program has opened. Same as close() method, the command neither requires any parameter nor does is return any value.
47) Can Selenium handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing. Therefore, windows pop up cannot be handled using Selenium.
48) How can we handle web based pop up?
WebDriver offers the users with a very efficient way to handle these pop ups using Alert interface. There are the four methods that we would be using along with the Alert interface.
• void dismiss() – The accept() method clicks on the “Cancel” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
• void accept() – The accept() method clicks on the “Ok” button as soon as the pop up window appears.
• String getText() – The getText() method returns the text displayed on the alert box.
• void sendKeys(String stringToSend) – The sendKeys() method enters the specified string pattern into the alert box.
Syntax:
// accepting javascript alert
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();
alert.accept();
49) How can we handle windows based pop up?
Selenium is an automation testing tool which supports only web application testing, that means, it doesn’t support testing of windows based applications. However Selenium alone can’t help the situation but along with some third party intervention, this problem can be overcome. There are several third party tools available for handling window based pop ups along with the selenium like AutoIT, Robot class etc.
50) How to assert title of the web page?
//verify the title of the web page
assertTrue(“The title of the window is incorrect.”,driver.getTitle().equals(“Title of the page”));
51) How to mouse hover on a web element using WebDriver?
WebDriver offers a wide range of interaction utilities that the user can exploit to automate mouse and keyboard events. Action Interface is one such utility which simulates the single user interactions.
Thus, In the following scenario, we have used Action Interface to mouse hover on a drop down which then opens a list of options.
Sample Code:
1 // Instantiating Action Interface
2 Actions actions=new Actions(driver);
3 // howering on the dropdown
4 actions.moveToElement(driver.findElement(By.id(“id of the dropdown”))).perform();
5 // Clicking on one of the items in the list options
6 WebElement subLinkOption=driver.findElement(By.id(“id of the sub link”));
7 subLinkOption.click();
52) What is a framework?
Framework is a constructive blend of various guidelines, coding standards, concepts, processes, practices, project hierarchies, modularity, reporting mechanism, test data injections etc. to pillar automation testing.
53) What are the advantages of Automation framework?
Advantage of Test Automation framework
• Reusability of code
• Maximum coverage
• Recovery scenario
• Low cost maintenance
• Minimal manual intervention
• Easy Reporting
54) What are the different types of frameworks?
Below are the different types of frameworks:
1. Module Based Testing Framework: The framework divides the entire “Application Under Test” into number of logical and isolated modules. For each module, we create a separate and independent test script. Thus, when these test scripts taken together builds a larger test script representing more than one module.
2. Library Architecture Testing Framework: The basic fundamental behind the framework is to determine the common steps and group them into functions under a library and call those functions in the test scripts whenever required.
3. Data Driven Testing Framework: Data Driven Testing Framework helps the user segregate the test script logic and the test data from each other. It lets the user store the test data into an external database. The data is conventionally stored in “Key-Value” pairs. Thus, the key can be used to access and populate the data within the test scripts.
4. Keyword Driven Testing Framework: The Keyword driven testing framework is an extension to Data driven Testing Framework in a sense that it not only segregates the test data from the scripts, it also keeps the certain set of code belonging to the test script into an external data file.
5. Hybrid Testing Framework: Hybrid Testing Framework is a combination of more than one above mentioned frameworks. The best thing about such a setup is that it leverages the benefits of all kinds of associated frameworks.
6. Behavior Driven Development Framework: Behavior Driven Development framework allows automation of functional validations in easily readable and understandable format to Business Analysts, Developers, Testers, etc.
55) How can I read test data from excels?
Test data can efficiently be read from excel using JXL or POI API.See detailed tutorial here.
56) Can WebDriver test Mobile applications?
WebDriver cannot test Mobile applications. WebDriver is a web based testing tool, therefore applications on the mobile browsers can be tested.
60) Can captcha be automated?
No, captcha and bar code reader cannot be automated.
61) What is Object Repository? How can we create Object Repository in Selenium?
Object Repository is a term used to refer to the collection of web elements belonging to Application Under Test (AUT) along with their locator values. Thus, whenever the element is required within the script, the locator value can be populated from the Object Repository. Object Repository is used to store locators in a centralized location instead of hard coding them within the scripts.
In Selenium, objects can be stored in an excel sheet which can be populated inside the script whenever required.

 

Android interview questions

Top most important android interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important android interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download android interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these android interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

If you want to become an expert in android ,Register for android online training here.

 

1) What is Android?
It is an open-sourced operating system that is used primarily on mobile devices, such as cell phones and tablets. It is a Linux kernel-based system that’s been equipped with rich components that allows developers to create and run apps that can perform both basic and advanced functions.
2) What Is the Google Android SDK?
The Google Android SDK is a toolset that developers need in order to write apps on Android enabled devices. It contains a graphical interface that emulates an Android driven handheld environment, allowing them to test and debug their codes.
3) What is the Android Architecture?
Android Architecture is made up of 4 key components:
– Linux Kernel
– Libraries
– Android Framework
– Android Applications
4) What is the importance of XML-based layouts?
The use of XML-based layouts provides a consistent and somewhat standard means of setting GUI definition format. In common practice, layout details are placed in XML files while other items are placed in source files.
5) What are containers?
Containers, as the name itself implies, holds objects and widgets together, depending on which specific items are needed and in what particular arrangement that is wanted. Containers may hold labels, fields, buttons, or even child containers, as examples.
6) What is Orientation?
Orientation, which can be set using setOrientation(), dictates if the LinearLayout is represented as a row or as a column. Values are set as either HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL.
7) What is the importance of Android in the mobile market?
Developers can write and register apps that will specifically run under the Android environment. This means that every mobile device that is Android enabled will be able to support and run these apps. With the growing popularity of Android mobile devices, developers can take advantage of this trend by creating and uploading their apps on the Android Market for distribution to anyone who wants to download it.
8) What do you think are some disadvantages of Android?
Given that Android is an open-source platform, and the fact that different Android operating systems have been released on different mobile devices, there’s no clear cut policy to how applications can adapt with various OS versions and upgrades. One app that runs on this particular version of Android OS may or may not run on another version. Another disadvantage is that since mobile devices such as phones and tabs come in different sizes and forms, it poses a challenge for developers to create apps that can adjust correctly to the right screen size and other varying features and specs.
9) What is adb?
Adb is short for Android Debug Bridge. It allows developers the power to execute remote shell commands. Its basic function is to allow and control communication towards and from the emulator port.
10) What are the four essential states of an activity?
– Active – if the activity is at the foreground
– Paused – if the activity is at the background and still visible
– Stopped – if the activity is not visible and therefore is hidden or obscured by another activity
– Destroyed – when the activity process is killed or completed terminated
11) What is ANR?
ANR is short for Application Not Responding. This is actually a dialog that appears to the user whenever an application have been unresponsive for a long period of time.
12) Which elements can occur only once and must be present?
Among the different elements, the and elements must be present and can occur only once. The rest are optional, and can occur as many times as needed.
13) How are escape characters used as attribute?
Escape characters are preceded by double backslashes. For example, a newline character is created using ‘\n’
14) What is the importance of settings permissions in app development?
Permissions allow certain restrictions to be imposed primarily to protect data and code. Without these, codes could be compromised, resulting to defects in functionality.
15) What is the function of an intent filter?
Because every component needs to indicate which intents they can respond to, intent filters are used to filter out intents that these components are willing to receive. One or more intent filters are possible, depending on the services and activities that is going to make use of it.
16) Enumerate the three key loops when monitoring an activity
– Entire lifetime – activity happens between onCreate and onDestroy
– Visible lifetime – activity happens between onStart and onStop
– Foreground lifetime – activity happens between onResume and onPause
17) When is the onStop() method invoked?
A call to onStop method happens when an activity is no longer visible to the user, either because another activity has taken over or if in front of that activity.
18) Is there a case wherein other qualifiers in multiple resources take precedence over locale?
Yes, there are actually instances wherein some qualifiers can take precedence over locale. There are two known exceptions, which are the MCC (mobile country code) and MNC (mobile network code) qualifiers.
19) What are the different states wherein a process is based?
There are 4 possible states:
– foreground activity
– visible activity
– background activity
– empty process
20) How can the ANR be prevented?
One technique that prevents the Android system from concluding a code that has been responsive for a long period of time is to create a child thread. Within the child thread, most of the actual workings of the codes can be placed, so that the main thread runs with minimal periods of unresponsive times.
21) What role does Dalvik play in Android development?
Dalvik serves as a virtual machine, and it is where every Android application runs. Through Dalvik, a device is able to execute multiple virtual machines efficiently through better memory management.
22) What is the AndroidManifest.xml?
This file is essential in every application. It is declared in the root directory and contains information about the application that the Android system must know before the codes can be executed.
23) What is the proper way of setting up an Android-powered device for app development?
The following are steps to be followed prior to actual application development in an Android-powered device:
-Declare your application as “debuggable” in your Android Manifest.
-Turn on “USB Debugging” on your device.
-Set up your system to detect your device.
24) Enumerate the steps in creating a bounded service through AIDL.
1. create the .aidl file, which defines the programming interface
2. implement the interface, which involves extending the inner abstract Stub class as well as implanting its methods.
3. expose the interface, which involves implementing the service to the clients.
25) What is the importance of Default Resources?
When default resources, which contain default strings and files, are not present, an error will occur and the app will not run. Resources are placed in specially named subdirectories under the project res/ directory.
26) When dealing with multiple resources, which one takes precedence?
Assuming that all of these multiple resources are able to match the configuration of a device, the ‘locale’ qualifier almost always takes the highest precedence over the others.
27) When does ANR occur?
The ANR dialog is displayed to the user based on two possible conditions. One is when there is no response to an input event within 5 seconds, and the other is when a broadcast receiver is not done executing within 10 seconds.
28) What is AIDL?
AIDL, or Android Interface Definition Language, handles the interface requirements between a client and a service so both can communicate at the same level through interprocess communication or IPC. This process involves breaking down objects into primitives that Android can understand. This part is required simply because a process cannot access the memory of the other process.

29) What data types are supported by AIDL?
AIDL has support for the following data types:
-string
-charSequence
-List
-Map
-all native Java data types like int,long, char and Boolean
30) What is a Fragment?
A fragment is a part or portion of an activity. It is modular in a sense that you can move around or combine with other fragments in a single activity. Fragments are also reusable.
31) What is a visible activity?
A visible activity is one that sits behind a foreground dialog. It is actually visible to the user, but not necessarily being in the foreground itself.
32) When is the best time to kill a foreground activity?
The foreground activity, being the most important among the other states, is only killed or terminated as a last resort, especially if it is already consuming too much memory. When a memory paging state has been reach by a foreground activity, then it is killed so that the user interface can retain its responsiveness to the user.
33) Is it possible to use or add a fragment without using a user interface?
Yes, it is possible to do that, such as when you want to create a background behavior for a particular activity. You can do this by using add(Fragment,string) method to add a fragment from the activity.
34) How do you remove icons and widgets from the main screen of the Android device?
To remove an icon or shortcut, press and hold that icon. You then drag it downwards to the lower part of the screen where a remove button appears.
35) What are the core components under the Android application architecture?
There are 5 key components under the Android application architecture:
– services
– intent
– resource externalization
– notifications
– content providers
36) What composes a typical Android application project?
A project under Android development, upon compilation, becomes an .apk file. This apk file format is actually made up of the AndroidManifest.xml file, application code, resource files, and other related files.
37) What is a Sticky Intent?
A Sticky Intent is a broadcast from sendStickyBroadcast() method such that the intent floats around even after the broadcast, allowing others to collect data from it.
38) Do all mobile phones support the latest Android operating system?
Some Android-powered phone allows you to upgrade to the higher Android operating system version. However, not all upgrades would allow you to get the latest version. It depends largely on the capability and specs of the phone, whether it can support the newer features available under the latest Android version.
39) What is portable wi-fi hotspot?
Portable Wi-Fi Hotspot allows you to share your mobile internet connection to other wireless device. For example, using your Android-powered phone as a Wi-Fi Hotspot, you can use your laptop to connect to the Internet using that access point.
40) What is an action?
In Android development, an action is what the intent sender wants to do or expected to get as a response. Most application functionality is based on the intended action.
41) What is the difference between a regular bitmap and a nine-patch image?
In general, a Nine-patch image allows resizing that can be used as background or other image size requirements for the target device. The Nine-patch refers to the way you can resize the image: 4 corners that are unscaled, 4 edges that are scaled in 1 axis, and the middle one that can be scaled into both axes.
42) What language is supported by Android for application development?
The main language supported is Java programming language. Java is the most popular language for app development, which makes it ideal even for new Android developers to quickly learn to create and deploy applications in the Android environment.
43) What is meaning of Android Word?
it means a robot with a human appearance.

44) What is Android?
an open-source operating system used for smartphones and tablet computers.

45) Inventors of android ?
Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears5. Features of Android OS?
Most of us are aware of features like
Live wallpaper
Camera
Messaging
Bluetooth
WIFI
Web Browsing
Music
Alarm etc. etc….

46) Advance Features of Android OS?
Google now (voice assistant)
NFC (Near Field Communication)
Unlock your phone by your face
Use your phone with joystick to enjoy gaming experience
Connect your phone with LED TV via MHL or micro HDMI cable
Screen Capture
Multitasking Future (Task Switcher)
Data Usages (Check and also set limit from device)

47) Tools Required for Developing Android Apps?
JDK
Eclipse + ADT plugin
SDK Tools.
48) ADT stand for?
Android Developer Tools

49) SDK stand for ?
Software Development Kit

50) Advantages of android?
Open-source
Platform-independent
Supports various technologies (having number of native application like: camera, bluetooth, wifi, speech, EDGE)

51) Describe the Android Framework.
The Android Framework is an important aspect of the Android Architecture. Here you can find all the classes and methods that developers would need in order to write applications on the Android environment.
52) What is AAPT?
AAPT is short for Android Asset Packaging Tool. This tool provides developers with the ability to deal with zip-compatible archives, which includes creating, extracting as well as viewing its contents.
53) What is the importance of having an emulator within the Android environment?
The emulator lets developers “play” around an interface that acts as if it were an actual mobile device. They can write and test codes, and even debug. Emulators are a safe place for testing codes especially if it is in the early design phase.
54) What is the use of an activityCreator?
An activityCreator is the first step towards the creation of a new Android project. It is made up of a shell script that will be used to create new file system structure necessary for writing codes within the Android IDE.
55) Describe Activities.
Activities are what you refer to as the window to a user interface. Just as you create windows in order to display output or to ask for an input in the form of dialog boxes, activities play the same role, though it may not always be in the form of a user interface.
56) What are Intents?
Intents displays notification messages to the user from within the Android enabled device. It can be used to alert the user of a particular state that occurred. Users can be made to respond to intents.
57) Differentiate Activities from Services.
Activities can be closed, or terminated anytime the user wishes. On the other hand, services are designed to run behind the scenes, and can act independently. Most services run continuously, regardless of whether there are certain or no activities being executed.
58) What items are important in every Android project?
These are the essential items that are present each time an Android project is created:
– AndroidManifest.xml
– build.xml
– bin/
– src/
– res/
– assets/

 

 

Pl sql interview questions

Top most important pl sql interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important pl sql interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download pl sql interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these pl sql interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

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1.What special operators does Oracle provide for dealing with NULLs?

NVL – Converts a NULL to another specified value, as in:

my_var := NVL (your_var, ‘Hello’);

IS NULL and IS NOT NULL

You can use this syntax to check specificaly to see if a variable’s value is NULL or NOT NULL.

2.Explain three different rules that apply to NULLs when doing comparisons?

1. For all operators except for concatenation (||), if a value in an expression is a NULL, that expression evaluates to NULL

2. NULL is never equal or not equal to another value

3. NULL is never TRUE or FALSE

3.What command would you use to encrypt a PL/SQL application?

WRAP

4.Explain the difference between a FUNCTION, PROCEDURE and PACKAGE.

A function has a return type in its specification and must return a value specified in that type. A procedure does not have a return type in its specification and should not return any value, but it can have a return statement that simply stops its execution and returns to the caller.

5.What steps are included in the compilation process of a PL/SQL block?

The compilation process includes syntax checking, binding, and p-code generation. Syntax checking involves checking PL/SQL code for compilation errors. After syntax errors have been corrected, a storage address is assigned to the variables that are used to hold data for Oracle. This process is called binding. Next, p-code is generated for the PL/SQL block. P-code is a list of instructions to the PL/SQL engine. For named blocks, p-code is stored in the database, and it is used the next time the program is executed.

6.How does a syntax error differ from a runtime error?

A syntax error can be detected by the PL/SQL compiler. A runtime error occurs while the program is running and cannot be detected by the PL/SQL compiler.

A misspelled keyword is an example of a syntax error. For example, this script:

BEIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (‘This is a test’);
END;

contains a syntax error. Try to find it.

A SELECT INTO statement returning no rows is an example of a runtime error. This error can be handled with the help of the exception-handling section of the PL/SQL block.

Define Commit, Rollback and Savepoint.

When a COMMIT statement is issued to the database, the transaction has ended, and the following results are true:

. All work done by the transaction becomes permanent.

. Other users can see changes in data made by the transaction.

. Any locks acquired by the transaction are released.

When a ROLLBACK statement is issued to the database, the transaction has ended, and the following results are true:

. All work done by the transaction is undone, as if it hadn’t been issued.

. Any locks acquired by the transaction are released.

The ROLLBACK statement undoes all the work done by the user in a specific transaction. With the SAVEPOINT command, however, only part of the transaction can be undone.

7.Explain Implicit and Explicit cursors

Oracle automatically declares an implicit cursor every time a SQL statement is executed. The user is unaware of this and cannot control or process the information in an implicit cursor.

The program defines an explicit cursor for any query that returns more than one row of data. This means that the programmer has declared the cursor within the PL/SQL code block. This declaration allows the application to sequentially process each row of data as the cursor returns it.

8.How an Implicit cursor works?

1. Any given PL/SQL block issues an implicit cursor whenever a SQL statement is executed, as long as an explicit cursor does not exist for that SQL statement.
2. A cursor is automatically associated with every DML (data manipulation) statement (UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT).
3. All UPDATE and DELETE statements have cursors that identify the set of rows that will be affected by the operation.
4. An INSERT statement needs a place to receive the data that is to be inserted into the database; the implicit cursor fulfills this need.
5. The most recently opened cursor is called the SQL cursor.

9.How an Explicit cursor works?

The process of working with an explicit cursor consists of the following steps:

1. Declaring the cursor. This initializes the cursor into memory.

2. Opening the cursor. The declared cursor is opened, and memory is allotted.

3. Fetching the cursor. The declared and opened cursor can now retrieve data.

4. Closing the cursor. The declared, opened, and fetched cursor must be closed to release the memory allocation.

10.What are PL/SQL Cursor Exceptions?

Cursor_Already_Open, Invalid_Cursor

11.What is the maximum number of triggers, can apply to a single table?

12 triggers.

12.What is a mutating table error and how can you get around it?

This happens with triggers. It occurs because the trigger is trying to update a row it is currently using. The usual fix involves either use of views or temporary tables so the database is selecting from one while updating the other.

13.What packages (if any) has Oracle provided for use by developers?

Oracle provides the DBMS_ series of packages. There are many which developers should be aware of such as DBMS_SQL, DBMS_PIPE, DBMS_TRANSACTION, DBMS_LOCK, DBMS_ALERT, DBMS_OUTPUT, DBMS_JOB, DBMS_UTILITY, DBMS_DDL, UTL_FILE. If they can mention a few of these and describe how they used them, even better. If they include the SQL routines provided by Oracle, great, but not really what was asked.

Describe the use of PL/SQL tables

PL/SQL tables are scalar arrays that can be referenced by a binary integer. They can be used to hold values for use in later queries or calculations. In Oracle 8 they will be able to be of the %ROWTYPE designation, or RECORD.

14.When is a declare statement needed?

The DECLARE statement is used in PL/SQL anonymous blocks such as with stand alone, non-stored PL/SQL procedures. It must come first in a PL/SQL stand alone file if it is used.

In what order should a open/fetch/loop set of commands in a PL/SQL block be implemented if you use the %NOTFOUND cursor variable in the exit when statement? Why?

OPEN then FETCH then LOOP followed by the exit when. If not specified in this order will result in the final return being done twice because of the way the %NOTFOUND is handled by PL/SQL.

15.What are SQLCODE and SQLERRM and why are they important for PL/SQL developers?

SQLCODE returns the value of the error number for the last error encountered. The SQLERRM returns the actual error message for the last error encountered. They can be used in exception handling to report, or, store in an error log table, the error that occurred in the code. These are especially useful for the WHEN OTHERS exception.

16.How can you find within a PL/SQL block, if a cursor is open?

Use the %ISOPEN cursor status variable.

17.How can you generate debugging output from PL/SQL?

Use the DBMS_OUTPUT package. Another possible method is to just use the SHOW ERROR command, but this only shows errors. The DBMS_OUTPUT package can be used to show intermediate results from loops and the status of variables as the procedure is executed. The new package UTL_FILE can also be used.

18.What are the types of triggers?

There are 12 types of triggers in PL/SQL that consist of combinations of the BEFORE, AFTER, ROW, TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and ALL key words:
BEFORE ALL ROW INSERT
AFTER ALL ROW INSERT
BEFORE INSERT
AFTER INSERT etc.

19.How can I define a two-dimensional array of numbers in PL/SQL?

Although PL/SQL does not natively support the declaration and manipulation of multidimensional arrays, you can emulate these structures using nested collection definitions, which were first supported in Oracle9i Database Release 1.

Here is a brief example to get you started and introduce you to some of the challenges you may encounter as you use collections in this way.

First, create a collection of associative arrays.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE twodim_aa
IS
TYPE data_t IS TABLE OF NUMBER
INDEX BY PLS_INTEGER;

TYPE array_t IS TABLE OF data_t
INDEX BY PLS_INTEGER;
END twodim_aa;
/

The first, inner collection—data_t—contains the data for each cell in the two-dimensional array. Each row in the outer collection—array_t—contains a collection of the first type.

Now declare a variable based on that outer collection type —array_t—, which will serve as a two-dimensional array. In the following script, I declare such a collection—

DECLARE
l_2d_grid twodim_aa.array_t;

—and then assign values to three cells: (1,1), (1,2), and (200,206). Notice that the syntax is different from that used in traditional array cell specification, namely: (1)(1), (1)(2), and (200)(206). Also, since I am using associative arrays to define my two-dimensional array, I do not have to specify a size for this two-dimensional array.

DECLARE
l_2d_grid twodim_aa.array_t;
BEGIN
l_2d_grid (1) (1) := 100;
l_2d_grid (1) (2) := 120;
l_2d_grid (200) (206) := 200;

IF l_2d_grid (1)(2)

20.What is PL/SQL?
PL/SQL stands for procedural language extension to SQL. It supports procedural features of programming language and SQL both. It was developed by Oracle Corporation in early of 90’s to enhance the capabilities of SQL.

21. What is PL/SQL table? Why it is used?
Objects of type tables are called PL/SQL tables that are modeled as database table. We can also say that PL/SQL tables are a way to providing arrays. Arrays are like temporary tables in memory that are processed very quickly. PL/SQL tables are used to move bulk data. They simplifies moving collections of data.

22. What are the datatypes available in PL/SQL?
There are two types of datatypes in PL/SQL:
1. Scalar datatypes Example are NUMBER, VARCHAR2, DATE, CHAR, LONG, BOOLEAN etc.
2. Composite datatypes Example are RECORD, TABLE etc
23. What is the basic structure of PL/SQL?
PL/SQL uses BLOCK structure as its basic structure. Each PL/SQL program consists of SQL and PL/SQL statement which form a PL/SQL block.
PL/SQL block contains 3 sections.
1. The Declaration Section (optional)
2. The Execution Section (mandatory)
3. The Exception handling Section (optional)

24. What is the difference between FUNCTION, PROCEDURE AND PACKAGE in PL/SQL?
Function: The main purpose of a PL/SQL function is generally to compute and return a single value. A function has a return type in its specification and must return a value specified in that type.
Procedure: A procedure does not have a return type and should not return any value but it can have a return statement that simply stops its execution and returns to the caller. A procedure is used to return multiple values otherwise it is generally similar to a function.
Package: A package is schema object which groups logically related PL/SQL types , items and subprograms. You can also say that it is a group of functions, procedure, variables and record type statement. It provides modularity, due to this facility it aids application development. It is used to hide information from unauthorized users.

25.What is exception? What are the types of exceptions?
Exception is an error handling part of PL/SQL. There are two type of exceptions: pre_defined exception and user_defined exception.
26.How exception is different from error?
Whenever an Error occurs Exception arises. Error is a bug whereas exception is a warning or error condition.

27.What is the main reason behind using an index?
Faster access of data blocks in the table.

28. What are PL/SQL exceptions? Tell me any three.
1. Too_many_rows
2. No_Data_Found
3. Value_error
4. Zero_error etc.

29. What is the maximum number of triggers, you can apply on a single table?
12 triggers.

30.How many types of triggers exist in PL/SQL?
There are 12 types of triggers in PL/SQL that contains the combination of BEFORE, AFTER, ROW, TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and ALL keywords.
• BEFORE ALL ROW INSERT
• AFTER ALL ROW INSERT
• BEFORE INSERT
• AFTER INSERT etc.

31. What is stored Procedure?
A stored procedure is a sequence of statement or a named PL/SQL block which performs one or more specific functions. It is similar to a procedure in other programming languages. It is stored in the database and can be repeatedly executed. It is stored as schema object. It can be nested, invoked and parameterized.

32.How to execute a stored procedure?
There are two way to execute a stored procedure.
From the SQL prompt, write EXECUTE or EXEC followed by procedure_name.
1. EXECUTE or [EXEC] procedure_name;
Simply use the procedure name
1. procedure_name;

33. What are the advantages of stored procedure?
Modularity, extensibility, reusability, Maintainability and one time compilation.

34. What are the cursor attributes used in PL/SQL?
%ISOPEN: it checks whether the cursor is open or not.
%ROWCOUNT: returns the number of rows affected by DML operations: INSERT,DELETE,UPDATE,SELECT.
%FOUND: it checks whether cursor has fetched any row. If yes – TRUE.
%NOTFOUND: it checks whether cursor has fetched any row. If no – TRUE.

35. What is consistency?
Consistency simply means that each user sees the consistent view of the data.
Consider an example: there are two users A and B. A transfers money to B’s account. Here the changes are updated in A’s account (debit) but until it will be updated to B’s account (credit), till then other users can’t see the debit of A’s account. After the debit of A and credit of B, one can see the updates. That?s consistency.

36. What is cursor and why it is required?
A cursor is a temporary work area created in a system memory when an SQL statement is executed.
A cursor contains information on a select statement and the row of data accessed by it. This temporary work area stores the data retrieved from the database and manipulate this data. A cursor can hold more than one row, but can process only one row at a time. Cursor are required to process rows individually for queries.

37. How many types of cursors are available in PL/SQL?
There are two types of cursors in PL/SQL.
1. Implicit cursor, and
2. explicit cursor

38.What is a cursor? Define explicit and implicit cursor.
The oracle engine opens a work area for each SQL’s operations for its internal processing in order to execute SQL statements. This area is private to SQL’s operations and is called as a cursor.

Implicit cursor – If the oracle engine has opened a cursor for its internal processing, then it is implicit cursor.

Explicit cursor – It is also known as user defined cursor. When a user opens a cursor for processing data, the cursor is explicit cursor.
39.Explain about the cursor attributes.
Each cursor or cursor variable has four attributes:

%FOUND, %ISOPEN, %NOTFOUND and %ROWCOUNT

When appended to the cursor, these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement.
40.What are the restrictions of using cursor variables?
-PL/SQL tables cannot store cursor variables.
-Remote subprogram cannot return the value of a cursor variable.
41.What is a trigger in PLSQL?
A trigger is a PLSQL block that is executed whenever an event occurs. It fires implicitly whenever the triggering event happens, a trigger never accepts argument. A trigger cannot be used for a SELECT statement.
42.What are the triggers supported in oracle?
-DML triggers
-Instead of triggers
-DDL triggers
-Database event triggers

DML triggers

It is defined on a table and fires in response to an event like

– When a row is inserted to a table
– When a row is updated
– When a row is deleted

Instead of trigger

This trigger is created on views. You can either use Insert or Update or Delete or all three actions.
What are triggering attributes?
Triggering attributes are used to catch event when you want to identify or to perform certain actions.

They are as follows:

Inserting
Updating
Deleting
43.What is the difference between a function and a procedure in oracle?
A function always returns a value back to the calling block.
44.What are packages?
A package is an encapsulated collection of related schema objects. A package is compiled and then stored in the database’s data dictionary as a schema objects. These objects can be procedure, functions, variables, constants, cursors and exceptions.
45.Explain the difference between GRANT and REVOKE command.
GRANT command is used to allow a user to perform certain activities on the database. The REVOKE command disallows the user from performing certain activities.
Explain the difference between ROLLBACK and COMMIT commands.
The COMMIT command is used to save the modifications done to the database values by the DML commands.

ROLLBACK command is used to undo the changes made by the DML commands. This ensures the values that existed prior to the changes can be achieved.
46.Define Row level trigger.
Row level trigger is fired each time a row is affected by DML statements like Insert, Update and Delete. When no rows affected, the trigger is not executed at all.
47.Define Statement level triggers.
It is fired when statement affects rows in a table but the processing required is completely independent of the number of rows affected.
48.Define Joins and its types.
A join is a query that extracts corresponding rows from two or more tables, views or snapshots.

Types:

Equi-joins
Non-equi joins
Self joins
Outer joins

Equi-join – information from two or more tables are retrieved by using equality conditions.

Self joins – Self join is a join that relates to itself.

Outer joins – Outer join fetch the rows from two tables which matches the join condition and the rows which don’t match the join condition.

 

Python interview questions

Top most important Python interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important Python interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download Python interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these Python interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

If you want to become an expert in Python ,Register for Python online training here.

 

1) What is Python? What are the benefits of using Python?
Python is a programming language with objects, modules, threads, exceptions and automatic memory management. The benefits of pythons are that it is simple and easy, portable, extensible, build-in data structure and it is an open source.
2) What is PEP 8?
PEP 8 is a coding convention, a set of recommendation, about how to write your Python code more readable.
3) What is pickling and unpickling?
Pickle module accepts any Python object and converts it into a string representation and dumps it into a file by using dump function, this process is called pickling. While the process of retrieving original Python objects from the stored string representation is called unpickling.
4) How Python is interpreted?
Python language is an interpreted language. Python program runs directly from the source code. It converts the source code that is written by the programmer into an intermediate language, which is again translated into machine language that has to be executed.
5) How memory is managed in Python?
• Python memory is managed by Python private heap space. All Python objects and data structures are located in a private heap. The programmer does not have an access to this private heap and interpreter takes care of this Python private heap.
• The allocation of Python heap space for Python objects is done by Python memory manager. The core API gives access to some tools for the programmer to code.
• Python also have an inbuilt garbage collector, which recycle all the unused memory and frees the memory and makes it available to the heap space.
6) What are the tools that help to find bugs or perform static analysis?
PyChecker is a static analysis tool that detects the bugs in Python source code and warns about the style and complexity of the bug. Pylint is another tool that verifies whether the module meets the coding standard.
7) What are Python decorators?
A Python decorator is a specific change that we make in Python syntax to alter functions easily.
8) What is the difference between list and tuple?
The difference between list and tuple is that list is mutable while tuple is not. Tuple can be hashed for e.g as a key for dictionaries.
9) How are arguments passed by value or by reference?
Everything in Python is an object and all variables hold references to the objects. The references values are according to the functions; as a result you cannot change the value of the references. However, you can change the objects if it is mutable.
10) What is Dict and List comprehensions are?
They are syntax constructions to ease the creation of a Dictionary or List based on existing iterable.
11) What are the built-in type does python provides?
There are mutable and Immutable types of Pythons built in types Mutable built-in types
• List
• Sets
• Dictionaries
Immutable built-in types
• Strings
• Tuples
• Numbers
12) What is namespace in Python?
In Python, every name introduced has a place where it lives and can be hooked for. This is known as namespace. It is like a box where a variable name is mapped to the object placed. Whenever the variable is searched out, this box will be searched, to get corresponding object.
13) What is lambda in Python?
It is a single expression anonymous function often used as inline function.
14) Why lambda forms in python does not have statements?
A lambda form in python does not have statements as it is used to make new function object and then return them at runtime.
15) What is pass in Python?
Pass means, no-operation Python statement, or in other words it is a place holder in compound statement, where there should be a blank left and nothing has to be written there.
16) In Python what are iterators?
In Python, iterators are used to iterate a group of elements, containers like list.
17) What is unittest in Python?
A unit testing framework in Python is known as unittest. It supports sharing of setups, automation testing, shutdown code for tests, aggregation of tests into collections etc.
18) In Python what is slicing?
A mechanism to select a range of items from sequence types like list, tuple, strings etc. is known as slicing.
19) What are generators in Python?
The way of implementing iterators are known as generators. It is a normal function except that it yields expression in the function.
20) What is docstring in Python?
A Python documentation string is known as docstring, it is a way of documenting Python functions, modules and classes. 
21) How can you copy an object in Python?
To copy an object in Python, you can try copy.copy () or copy.deepcopy() for the general case. You cannot copy all objects but most of them.
22) What is negative index in Python?
Python sequences can be index in positive and negative numbers. For positive index, 0 is the first index, 1 is the second index and so forth. For negative index, (-1) is the last index and (-2) is the second last index and so forth.
23) How you can convert a number to a string?
In order to convert a number into a string, use the inbuilt function str(). If you want a octal or hexadecimal representation, use the inbuilt function oct() or hex().
24) What is the difference between Xrange and range?
Xrange returns the xrange object while range returns the list, and uses the same memory and no matter what the range size is.
25) What is module and package in Python?
In Python, module is the way to structure program. Each Python program file is a module, which imports other modules like objects and attributes.
The folder of Python program is a package of modules. A package can have modules or subfolders.
26) What is Python?
Python is an object oriented and open-source programming language, which supports structured and functional built-in data structures. With a placid and easy-to -understand syntax, Python allows code reuse and modularity of programs. The built-in DS in Python makes it a wonderful option for Rapid Application Development (RAD). The coding language also encourages faster editing, testing and debugging with no compilation steps.
27) What are the standard data types supported by Python?
It supports six data types:
1. Number : object stored as numeric value
2. String : object stored as string
3. Tuple : data stored in the form of sequence of immutable objects
4. Dictionary (dicts): associates one thing to another irrespective of the type of data, most useful container (called hashes in C and Java)
5. List : data stored in the form of a list sequence
6. Set (frozenset): unordered collection of distinct objects
28) Explain built-in sequence types in Python Programming?
It provides two built in sequence types-
1. Mutable Type : objects whose value can be changed after creation, example: sets, items in the list, dictionary
2. Immutable type : objects whose value cannot be changed once created, example: number, Boolean, tuple, string
29) Explain the use of iterator in Python?
Python coding uses Iterator to implement the iterator protocol, which enables traversing trough containers and group of elements like list.The two important methods include _iter_() returning the iterator object and next() method for traversal.
30) Define Python slicing ?
The process of extracting a range of elements from lists, arrays, tuples and custom Python data structures as well. It works on a general start and stop method: slice (start, stop, increment)
31) How can you compare two lists in Python?
We can simply perform it using compare function – cmp(rvhtechlist1, rvhtechlist2)
def cmp(rvhtechlist1, rvhtechlist2):
for val in rvhtechlist1:
if val in rvhtechlist2:
returnTrue
returnFalse
32) What is the use of // operator?
‘//’ is a Floor Divisionoperator, which divides two operands with the result as quotient showing only digits before decimal point.For instance, 6//3 = 2 and 6.0//3.0 = 2.0
33) Define docstring in Python with example.
A string literal occurring as the first statement (like a comment) in any module, class, function or method is referred as docstring in Python. This kind of string becomes the _doc_ special attribute of the object and provides an easy way to document a particular code segment. Most modules do contain docstrings and thus, the functions and classes extracted from the module also consist of docstrings.
34) What function randomizes the items of a list in place?
Using shuffle() function
For instance:
import randomize
lst = [2, 18, 8, 4];
randomize.shuffle(lst)
print “Shuffled list : “, lst
random.shuffle(list)
print “Reshuffled list : “, list
35) List five benefits of using Python?
1. Having the built-in data types, Python saves programmer’s time and effort from declaring variables. It has a powerful dict ionary and polymorphic list for automatic declaration. It also ensures better code reusability
2. Highly accessible and easy-to-learn for beginners and a strong ‘glue’ for advanced Professionals consisting fo several high-level modules and operations not performed by other programming languages.
3. Allows easy readability due to use of square brackets for most functions and indexes
4. Python requires no explicit memory management as the interpreter itself allocates the memory to new variables and free them automatically.
5. Python comprises a huge standard library for most Internet platforms like Email, HTML, FTP and other WWW platforms.
36) What are the disadvantages of using Python?
1. Python is slow as compared to other programming languages. Although, this slow pace doesn’t matter much, at times, we need other language to handle performance-critical situations.
2. It is ineffective on mobile platforms; fewer mobile applications are developed using python. The main reason behind its instability on smartphones is Python’s weakest security. There are no good secure cases available for Python until now
3. Due to dynamic typing, Programmers face design restrictions while using the language. The code needs more and more testing before putting it into action since the errors pop up only during runtime.
4. Unlike JavaScript, Python’s features like concurrency and parallelism are not developed for elegant use.
37) Explain the use of split function?
The split() function in Python breaks a string into shorter strings using the defined separator. It renders a list of all words present in the string.
>>> y= ‘true,false,none’
>>> y.split(‘,’)
Result: (‘true’, ‘false’, ‘none’)
What is the use of generators in Python?
Generators are primarily used to return multiple items but one after the other. They are used for iteration in Python and for calculating large result sets. The generator function halts until the next time request is placed.
One of the best uses of generators in Python coding is implementing callback operation with reduced effort and time. They replace callback with iteration. Through the generator approach, programmers are saved from writing a separate callback function and pass it to work-function as it can applying ‘for’ loop around the generator.
38) How to create a multidimensional list in Python?
As the name suggests, a multidimensional list is the concept of a list holding another list, applying to many such lists. It can be one easily done by creating single dimensional list and filling each element with a newly created list.
39) What is lambda?
lambda is a powerful concept used in conjunction with other functions like filter(), map(), reduce(). The major use of lambda construct is
to create anonymous functions during runtime, which can be used where they are created. Such functions are actually known as throw-away functions in Python. The general syntax is lambda argument_list:expression.
For instance:
>>> def rvhtech1 = lambda i, n : i+n
>>> rvhtech(2,2)
4
Using filter()
>> rvhtech= [1, 6, 11, 21, 29, 18, 24]
>> print filter (lambda x: x%3 = = 0, rvhtech)
[6, 21, 18, 24]
40) Define Pass in Python?
The pass statement in Python is equivalent to a null operation and a placeholder, wherein nothing takes place after its execution. It is mostly used at places where you can let your code go even if it isn’t written yet.
If you would set out a pass after the code, it won’t run. The syntax is pass
41) How to perform Unit Testing in Python?
Referred to as PyUnit, the python Unit testing framework-unittest supports automated testing, seggregating test into collections, shutdown testing code and testing independence from reporting framework. The unittest module makes use of TestCase class for holding and preparing test routines and clearing them after the successful execution.
42) Define Python tools for finding bugs and performing static analysis?
. PyChecker is an excellent bug finder tool in Python, which performs static analysis unlike C/C++ and Java. It also notifies the programmers about the complexity and style of the code. In addition, there is another tool, PyLint for checking the coding standards including the code line length, variable names and whether the interfaces declared are fully executed or not.
43) How to convert a string into list?
Using the function list(string). For instance:
>>> list(‘rvhtech’) in your lines of code will return
[‘i’, ‘n’, ‘t’, ‘e’, ‘l’, ‘l’, ‘i’, ‘p’, ‘a’, ‘a’, ‘t’]
In Python, strings behave like list in various ways. Like, you can access individual characters of a string
>> > y = “rvhtech”
>>> s[2]
‘t’
44) What OS do Python support?
Linux, Windows, Mac OS X, IRIX, Compaq, Solaris

45) Define docstring in Python.
A string literal occurring as the first statement (like a comment) in any module, class, function or method is referred as docstring in Python. This kind of string becomes the _doc_ special attribute of the object and provides an easy way to document a particular code segment. Most modules do contain docstrings and thus, the functions and classes extracted from the module also consist of docstrings.
46) Name the optional clauses used in a ‘try-except’ statement in Python?
While Python exception handling is a bit different from Java, the former provides an option of using a try-except clause where the programmer receives a detailed error message without termination the program. Sometimes, along with the problem, this try-except statement offers a solution to deal with the error.
The language also provides try-except-finally and try-except-else blocks.
47)  How to use PYTHOPATH?
PYTHONPATH is the environment variable consisting of directories. $PYTHONPATH is used for searching the actual list of folders for libraries.
48) Define ‘self’ in Python?
self is a reference to the current instance of the class. It is just like ‘this’ in JavaScript. While we create an instance of a class, that instance has its data, which internally passes a reference to it‘self’

49) Define CGI?
Common Gateway Interface support in Python is an external gateway to interact with HTTP server and other information servers. It consists of a series of standards and instructions defining the exchange of information between a custom script and web server. The HTTP server puts all important and useful information concerning the request in the script environment and then run the script and sends it back in the form of output to the client.
50) What is PYTHONSTARTUP and how is it used?
PYTHONSTARTUP is yet another environment variable to test the Python file in the interpreter using interactive mode. The script file is executed even before the first prompt is seen. Additionally, it also allows reloading of the same script file after being modified in the external editor.
51) What is the return value of trunc() in Python?
truc() returns integer value. Uses the _trunc_ method
>>> import rvhtech
rvhtech.trunc(4.34)
4

52) How to convert a string to an object in Python?
To convert string into object, Python provides a function eval(string). It allows the Python code to run in itself
53) Is there any function to change case of all letters in the string?
Yes, Python supports a function swapcase(), which swaps the current letter case of the string. This method returns a copy of the string with the string case swapped.
54) What is pickling and unpickling in Python?
The process of Pickling relates to the Pickle module. Pickle is a general module that acquires a python object and converts it into string. It further dumps that string object into a file by using dump () function.
Pickle comprises two methods:
Dump (): dumps an object to a file object
and Load (): loads an object from a file object
Unpickling is the reacquiring process to perform retrieval of the original Python object from the stored string for reuse.
55) What are the rules for local and global variables in Python?
Local and global variables – If a variable is defined outside function then it is implicitly global. If variable is assigned new value inside the function means it is local…
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Qc interview questions

Top most important qc interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important qc interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download qc interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these qc interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

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1.How does the records appear in Quality Center?
By default in the order in which they were added.

2. How can we save the tests executed in Test Lab?
They saved automatically when the users clicks on “END RUN” in the Test Lab.
3. How do you run reports from Quality Center?
To run reports from QC:
1. Open the Quality Center project
2. It displays the requirements modules
3. Choose report: Analysis > reports > standard requirements report
4. What is use of Test Instance?
Test instance is required to run the test case in the lab. We can’t directly test case in the lab, instead we need to run test instance of that test case.
5. What is Risk Category?
We determine the risk category for each assessment requirement under the analysis requirement, It has two factors:
1. Business Criticality
2. Failure Probability.

6.What is assessment requirement?
Assessment requirement represents requirements that are children of analysis requirement and at lower level in tree hierarchy.
7. What are roles and responsibilities of QC admin?
Roles & responsibilities of QC Admin are:
1. Project Creation
2. Managing users and their authentication.
3. Performance monitoring.
4. Data backup etc.
8. How do you find duplicates bugs in the Quality Center?
We can find duplicate bugs in the defect manager tab using “Find Similar Defects” button. We need to enter defect description in brief and it shows similar defects.
9. Does Quality Center supports UNIX Operating environment?
Yes, Quality center comes with two kinds of licenses:
1. Quality Center for Windows.
2. Quality Center for UNIX.
10. Why to use Filters? How you define it?
To see the records that meet the specific criteria that we define we use filters. We can define multiple items as Filter.
11. What the Users group determines?
The users group determines the privileges that the user has within a project.
12. What is Unattached Folder in Test Plan?
When we delete a folder or test from the test plan tree there are two ways. We can delete only folder or we can delete that folder, its sub folder and test also. When we delete only folder, all the tests under it moved to the unattached folder in the test plan tree.
13. What is Matching Defects?
Matching Defects helps us to find and eliminate duplicate or similar defects in project. There are two methods to search of similar defects.
• Finding similar Defects which compare a selected defect with all other existing defects in project.
• Finding similar Text which compares a specific test string against all other existing defects in project.
14. What is Defect Tracking?
Defect Tracking is a method of finding and removing application defects. We can add or detect defects to project in any stage of application management process.
15. Is ‘Not covered’ and ‘Not run’ status are same?
No, there is difference between ‘Not Covered’ and ‘Not Run’ status.
Not Covered status means all those requirements for which the test cases are not written and Not Run status means all those requirements for which test cases are written but are not run.
16. Explain Version Control?
To keep track of changes made to entities in the project we use version control. We can create QC entities and also keep previous version of those entities in requirements to track the changes.
17. What is test set notification, and when we need it?
 To inform any specific user we use test set notification if case of any failure.
18. What is the need of Host Manager?
Host manager helps to run test on a host connected to our network. It shows the list of available host for test execution and also organizes them into groups for a specific project.
19.Explain Linking Defect to test in Quality Control?
 Defects can be linked to test in the defect grid. It helps to run the tests based on the status of the defect. Defects can be linked to other entities as well such as requirements. Linking can be direct or indirect. If the defect link is with entity then QC adds a direct link and if the link is with run step then QC adds an indirect link to its run, test instance, test set and test.
20.What is the default database in Quality Center?
SQL Server is the default database in Quality Center.
That’s all about HP Quality Center Interview Questions and Answers. Prepare these questions multiple times and I am sure you will find it easy to learn this tool as well as clear the interview easily.
21. What is Quality Center?
Quality Center is a product of HP known as HP QC or Quality Center or HP ALM (application Lifecycle Management) tool. It is a web based test management tool which supports various phases of software development life cycle. It helps in improving application quality with more effective implementation of a project and it is cost efficient too.
22. What are the benefits of using Quality Center?
 Quality Center is simple and one of the best test management tool. Its benefits are:
1. It can be accessed through an IE browser.
2. Project database of a test can be maintained by QC.
3. It can be integrated with HP testing tools like QTP and Load Runner. It is also compatible with third party tools.
4. It helps in effectively executing test sets, collecting results and analyzing data.
5. It helps in monitoring defects closely.
6. QC can be linked to an email system which provides an easy way to share defect tracking information.
7. It can be used for creating reports and graphs which helps in analyzing test data.
8. It supports virtual environments like Citrix XenApp 6.0 and VMware ESX 5.0.
23. What is the first & latest version of Quality Center?
 Quality Center 8.0 is the first version and Quality Center or ALM 12.0 is the latest version.
24. Explain the modules of Quality Center?
 The Quality Center modules are:
1. Release Module: Allows us creating a project release. Each release can have multiple cycles.
2. Requirement Module: Allows us in managing requirements like what we are testing, what are the requirement topics and items and what are the analyzing requirements.
3. Test Plan: Allows us to write test cases for the requirements in a hierarchical tree-structure.
4. Test Resources: Allows us in managing test resources. Tests resources can be associated with tests.
5. Test lab: Allows us to run tests and analyze the results.
6. Defect Module: Allows us to log all the failed test cases results.
7. Dashboard: Allows us to create graphs and reports.
25. How many built in tables does Quality Center have?
 There are six built in tables:
1. Test Table
2. Test Step Table
3. Test Set Table
4. Run Table
5. Defect Table
6. Requirement Table

26. How many types of reports and graphs are there in Quality Center?
Reports and graphs can be generated any time and in each and every phase with QC module during the testing process by using default or customize settings like requirement, test plan, test lab or defect module. We can also get summary and progress reports.
27. Which types of database are used in Quality Center?
 When a Quality Center Project is created we have to store and manage the data generated and collected by Quality Center. Each and every project is supported by a database that is used to store project information. The following database applications are used to store and manage Quality Center information:
• Oracle 9.2.0.6 Standard/Enterprise Edition
• Oracle 10.2.0.3
• Microsoft SQL Server 2005 (SP2).
28. How does u control the access to a QC project?
We need to specify the users and the privileges for each user.
29. How many types of tabs are there in Quality Center?
Following types of tabs are available:
1. Requirement: Helps in tracking the customer requirements.
2. Test plan: Helps in designing the test cases and to store the test scripts.
3. Test lab: Helps in executing the test cases and track the results.
4. Defect: Helps in logging a defect and to track the logged defects.
30. What are the different edition for HP QC or HP ALM?
The different edition of HP QC/ALM includes:
• HP ALM essentials:It is used by the corporates that need the basic features for supporting their entire software life cycle.
• HP QC enterprise edition:It is used by corporates more commonly who use ALM more testing purposes, also provides integration with UFT
• HP ALM performance center edition:It is best suitable for organizations who would like to use HP ALM to drive HP-Loadrunner scripts. It helps the users to manage, maintain, execute, schedule and monitor performance tests.
31. What is the difference between Test Director and Quality Center?
Quality center is the advanced version of Test Director. It has more features than Test Director.
32. Do we have programming interface in Quality Center?
No, we don’t have programming interface in Quality Center.
33. What is the difference between Quality Center and Bugzilla?
 Quality Center is a test management tool which supports various phases of software development life cycle whereas BugZilla is Defect Management tool only.
34. What is meant by test lab in Quality Center?
Test lab is a functionality of Quality center using which we execute tests. We create test trees and add tests to those trees and placed them under test plan in a project. These tests then needs to imported in the Test lab module where Quality center executes them.
35. How can we import test cases from Excel to Quality Center?
To import test cases from Excel to Quality Center:
1. We need to Install and Configure the Microsoft Excel Add-In for Quality Center.
2. Need to Map the Columns present in the Excel with Columns in Quality Center.
3. Export the data from Excel using “Export to Quality Center option” in Excel.
4. Check for the errors if any.
36. How can we export the file from Quality Center to Excel/Word?
A file can be exported from any of the following tab in excel or word format.
1. Requirement tab:
1. Right click on main Requirement
2. Click on export
3. Save as word, excel or other template.
2. Test plan tab:
1. Select a test script.
2. Click on the design steps tab.
3. Right click anywhere in the window
4. Click on export and save as.Note: Only individual test can be exported. No parent child export is possible.
3. Test lab tab:
1. Select a child group.
2. Click on execution grid.
3. Right click and save in excel or other format.
4. Defects Tab:
1. Right click anywhere in the window.
2. Export all or selected defects.
3. Save them in excel sheet or any other format.
37. What is Business Component?
Business component is used for Business Process testing known as BPT. Business component provide script free environment for creating tests.
38. How to use QTP as an automation tool in Quality Center?
Using QTP add-in in Quality Center we can use QTP as an automation tool.
39. How to switch between two projects in Quality Center?
There is difference in switching between two projects in Quality Center 9.0 and above and in other versions.

QC 9.0:- Select Tools then Change Projects and Select Project.
Other versions: Log-off and log-in again.
40. What is Coverage status?
Percentage of testing covered at a given time is known as Coverage status. It helps in tracking project status.
41. Explain the architecture of HP-ALM?
HP ALM has following components:
1. HP ALM client.
2. ALM server/Application server.
3. Database servers.
42. What are the components of Dashboard Analysis?
The dashboard analysis has two components.
• Analysis View which contain analysis tree.
• Dashboard View which contains dashboard tree.
43. What types of requirements can be added to test cases in Quality Center?
There are two types of requirements can be added to test cases in Quality Center:
Parent Requirements which covers high level functions of the requirements
Child Requirements which covers low level functions of the requirements.
44. What is Sprinter in HP-ALM?
 Sprinter provides automated environment to execute various manual testing tasks. It offers advanced tools which helps in easy execution of testing tasks.

45. How to use Quality Center in real time project?
Following are the steps to use Quality Center in real time project.
1. Complete the preparation of test cases.
2. Export the test cases into Quality Center and Load them in the test plan module
3. Move the test cases from test plan tab to the test lab module.
4. Execute the test cases and check for the results
5. If we got any defects and raise the defects in the defect module.
46. How to map the requirements with test cases in Quality Center?
We can map the requirements with test cases in QC:
1. In the requirements tab select coverage view.
2. Select requirement by clicking on parent/child or grandchild.
3. On right hand side another window will appear. It has two tabs:
(a) Tests coverage
(b) Details
Test coverage tab will be selected by default or you click on it.
4. Click on select tests button a new window will appear on right hand side and you will see a list of all tests. You can select any test case you want to map with your requirements.
47. What is a Table in QC project?
A table is a part of database which stores records of information about the test plan.
48. What does a live analyses graph displays in Quality Center?
Quality Center live analyses graph provides a visual overview of all tests within a folder in test plan tree.
49. What are the phases of test management with Quality Center in order?
There are 5 phases: Specify releases, Specify requirements, Plan tests, Execute tests, Track defects.
50. What are the interfaces of Quality center?
The interfaces of QC are:
• Site Admin
• Quality Center

 

 

Qtp interview questions

 

Top most important qtp interview questions and answers by Experts:

Here is a list of Top most important qtp interview questions and answers by Experts.If you want to download qtp interview questions pdf free ,you can register with RVH techguru. Our experts prepared these qtp interview questions to accommodate freshers level to most experienced level technical interviews.

If you want to become an expert in qtp ,Register for qtp online training here.

1) Which environments are supported by QTP?
QTP supports the following environments
• Active X
• Delphi
• Java
• .Net
• Oracle • People Soft
• Power Builder
• SAP
• Siebel
• Stingray • Terminal Emulator
• Visual Basic
• Visual Age
• Web
• Web Services

2) What are the types object Repositories in QTP.
QTP Supports 2 types of Object Repository
1) Shared Object Repository (also called Global)

2) Per-Action Object Repository, (also called Local)
Per-Action Object Repository is used by default. The extension for Per-Action repository is “.mtr” .
Shared Object Repository is preferable while dealing with dynamic objects which are called in multiple tests. The extension is “.tsr”
3) Can we call QTP test from another test using scripting. Suppose there are 4 tests and I want to call these tests in a main script. Is this possible in QTP?
Yes. You can call 4 or even more scripts in your tests.For this, first you will need to make the Actions in the corresponding scripts re-usable.Then from the destination script you can make calls to these re-usable actions.
4) What is action split and the purpose of using this in QTP?
Action split is to divide an existing action into two parts.The purpose is to divide actions based on their functionality to improve code re-use.
5) How will you handle Java tree in QTP ?
Foremost you will select Java Add – In and launch QTP. Next step record operations on the Java Tree. If you face an issue while recording, you can select Tools > Object Identification > Java, tree object and make changes in mandatory and assistive properties to enable identification.
Tip: You can base you answer on similar lines for any other object of any environment. For example : If the question is how will check SAP checkbox , You say , first I will select SAP Add in … and so on.
6) Explain how QTP identifies object ?
QTP identifies any GUI Object based on its corresponding properties. While recording, QTP will identify and store peculiar properties (as defined in the Object Identification settings) in the object repository of the GUI object . At run-time, QTP will compare the stored property values with the on-screen properties, to uniquely identify the GUI object.
7) How many types of recording modes in QTP? Which will be used when ?
QTP supports 3 types of recording modes

1. Normal mode also called Contextual
2. Low-level recording mode
3.Analog mode
Normal Mode: It is the default recording mode and takes full advantage of QTP’s Test Object Model. It recognizes objects regardless of their position on -screen. This is the preferred mode of recoding and is used for most of the automation activities.
Low-level recording mode: This mode records the exact x,y co-ordinates of your mouse operations. It is helpful in testing hashmaps. It is useful for recording objects not identified by normal mode of QTP.
Analog mode: This mode records exact mouse and keyboard “movements” you perform in relation to the screen / application window. This mode is useful for the operation such as drawing a picture, recording signature., drag and drop operations.
8) How will you call from one action to another action ?
We can call an action in 2 ways
1) Call to copy of Action. – In this ,the Action Object Repository , Script and Datable will be copied to the destination Test Script.
2) Call to Existing Action. – In this, Object Repository , Script and Datable will NOT be copied but a call (reference) would be made to the Action in the source script.
9) What are Virtual Objects?
Your application may contain objects that behave like standard objects but are not recognized by QTP. You can define these objects as virtual objects and map them to standard classes, such as a button or a check box. QTP emulates the user’s action on the virtual object during the run session. In the test results, the virtual object is displayed as though it is a standard class object.
For example, suppose you want to record a test on a Web page containing a bitmap that the user clicks. The bitmap contains several different hyperlink areas, and each area opens a different destination page. When you record a test, the Web site matches the coordinates of the click on the bitmap and opens the destination page.
To enable QTP to click at the required coordinates during a run session, you can define a virtual object for an area of the bitmap, which includes those coordinates, and map it to the button class. When you run a test, QTP clicks the bitmap in the area defined as a virtual object so that the Web site opens the correct destination page.
10) How to perform Cross platform testing and Cross browser testing using QTP? Can u explain giving some example?
You will need to create separate Actions which take care of different OS and Browsers
Cross Platform Testing:

Using the Built in Environment Variable you can dig up the OS information.
Eg. Platform = Environment(“OS”). Then based on the Platform you need to call the actions which you recorded on that particular platform.

Cross Browser Testing:

Using this code Eg. Browser(“Core Values”).GetROProperty(“version”) you can extract the Browser and its correspondin version. Ex: Internet Explorer 6 or Netscape 5. Based on this value you call the actions which are relevant to that browser.
11) What is logical name of the object?
Logical name is a name given by QTP while creating an object in the repository to uniquely identify it from other objects in the application. This name would be used by the QTP to map the object name in script with its corresponding description in the object repository. Ex: Browser(“Browser”).Page(“Guru99”) Here Guru99 is the logical name of the object.
12) What is descriptive programming?
Typically ,an object and its properties must be recorded in the Object Repository to enable QTP to perform action s on it.
Using descriptive programming , you do not store the object and its property values in the Object repository but mention the property value pair directly in the script.
The idea behind descriptive programming is not bypass the object repository but help recognize dynamic objects.
13)What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser & page when using descriptive programming ?
You can use the name property
ex: Browser(“name:=”xxx””).page(“name:=”xxxx””)…..

OR

We can also use the property “micClass”.
ex: Browser(“micClass:=browser”).page(“micClass:=page”)….
14)Can we record an application running on a remote machine using QTP ?
Yes .you can record remote application provided you are accessing application through the local browser not via remoter like citrix.
If you are still unable to record it is advisable install QTP and application, on the same machine
15) Explain the keyword CreateObject with an example.
Creates and returns a reference to an Automation object
SYNTAX: CreateObject(servername.typename [, location])
Arguments
servername: Required. The name of the application providing the object.
typename : Required. The type or class of the object to create.
location : Optional. The name of the network server where the object is to be created.

Example : Set IE = CreateObject(“InternetExplorer.Application”)
16) Can you switch between Per-Action and Shared Object Repository ? If yes how ?
Yes .We can switch. Go to Test—>Settings—>Resources. Here you have an option to choose repositories.
17) What is Object Spy ? How to Use it ?
Object Spy helps in determining the run & test time object properties & methods of the application under test.
You can access object spy directly from the toolbar or from the Object Repository Dialog Box.
It is very useful during Descriptive Programming
18) When ordinal identifiers alone can make an object unique then why they are not given top priority? Why it is first mandatory and next assistive. Why we cannot go for ordinal identifiers directly?
Consider the following –
a) If two objects are overlapped on each other than location based object recognition will fail.
b) If only index based recognition is used your script will work but script execution time will increase.
Hence mandatory and assistive properties are used.
19) What is the file extension of the code file in QTP?
Code file extension is script.mts
20) Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.
QTP Automation Object model deals with Automation of QTP itself. Almost all configuration and functionality provided by QTP is represented by QTP’s Automation Object Model . Almost all dialog boxes in QTP have a corresponding automation object which can set or retrieved using the corresponding properties or methods in the Automation Object Model.QTP Automation Objects can be used along with standard VB programming elements like iterative loops or conditional statements to help you design a script of choice.
21) What is the use of Text output value in QTP?
Text Output values enable you to capture text appearing on the application under test during run-time.
If parameterized, text output values will capture values appearing in each iteration which would be stored in the run-time data table for further analysis.
22) What is Step Generator?
Step Generator enables use to Add Test Steps in your script. Using step generator you can add steps to your script without actually recording it.
23) How to make QTP understand the difference amongst the same type of objects .Suppose there are 5 check boxes in a page and I have to choose the 2nd one, how to do that through script?
You can use ordinal identifiers like index along with a little descriptive programming for object recognition.
24) What is Test Fusion Report ?.
Test Fusion Report , displays all aspects of a test run and is organized in a Tree format.
It gives details of each step executed for all iterations.
It also gives Run-time data table, Screen shots and movie of the test run if opted.
25) How can you handle exceptions in QTP?
In QTP Exceptional handling is done by using
a. Recovery Scenarios.
b. Using “On Error” statement
In Recovery scenario you have to define.
1. Triggered Events.
2. Recovery steps.
3. Post Recovery Test-Run.
At Script Level you can use the On Error Resume Next and On Error Go to 0 statement.
26) What are the types of environment variables in QTP ?
Environment variables in QTP are of three types:
1) Built-in (Read only)
2) User-defined Internal (Read only)
3) User-defined External (Read/Write)
You Set the Environment Variable using the following syntax
Environment.Value( “name”) = “rvhtech”
You can Retrieve the Environment Variable using following syntax
Environment.Value(“name”) — This will retrun name as Guru99
Environment.Value(“OS”) — This will return your system OS
27) What is the Difference between Bitmap Check point & Image Check point?
Bitmap checkpoint does a pixel to pixel comparison of an image or part of an image.
Image checkpoint does do a pixel to pixel comparison but instead compare image properties like alt text , destination url etc.
28) What is the difference between functions and actions in QTP?
Actions have their own Object Repository & Data Table. Actions help make your Test modular and increase reuse. Example: You can divide your script into Actions based on functionality like Login, Logout etc.
Functions is a VB Script programming concept and do not have their own Object Repository or Data Table. Functions help in re-use of your code. Ex: You can create a Function in your script to concatenate two strings.
29) What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP?
Keyword View is an icon based view which shows test steps in tabular format. It also automatically generates documentation for the test steps.
Expert View gives the corresponding VB Script statement for every test step in the Keyword view.
30) Explain QTP Testing process? –
Quick Test testing process consists of 6 main phases:
1) Create your test plan – This is preparatory phase where you identify the exact test steps, test data and expected results for you automated test. You also identify the environment and system configurations required to create and run your QTP Tests.
2) Recording a session on your application – During this phase , you will execute test steps one by one on your AUT ,and QTP will automatically record corresponding VB script statements for each step performed.
3) Enhancing your test – In this stage you will insert checkpoints , output values , parameterization , programming logic like if…else loops to enhance the logic of your test script.
4) Replay & Debug – After enhancements you will replay the script to check whether its working properly and debug if necessary.
5) Run your Tests – In this phase you will perform the actual execution of your Test Script.
6) Analyzing the test results – Once test run is complete, you will analyze the results in the Test Fusion report generated.
7) Reporting defects – Any incidents identified needs to be reported. If you are using Quality Center , defects can be automatically raised for failed tests in QTP.
31) What are the different types of Test Automation Frameworks ?
The types of Automation Frameworks are –
1) Linear Scripting – Record & Playback
2) The Test Library Architecture Framework.
3)The Data-Driven Testing Framework.
4)The Keyword-Driven or Table-Driven Testing Framework.
32) How will you check a web application for broken links using QTP?
You can use the Page Checkpoint which gives a count of valid/invalid links on a page.
33) What is a Run-Time Data Table? Where can I find and view this table?
Data like parameterized output , checkpoint values , output values are stored in the Run-time Table. It is an xls file which is stored in the Test Results Folder. It can also be accessed in the Test Fusion Report.
34) What is the difference between check point and output value.
Check point is a verification point that compares a current value for a specified property with the expected value for that property. Based on this comparison, it will generate a PASS or FAIL status.
An output value is a value captured during the test run and can be stored in a specified location like the Datable or even a variable. Unlike Checkpoints, no PASS/FAIL status is generated.
35) How would you connect to database using vbscript ?
To connect to the database you must know
a) connection string of your server
b) username
c) password
d) DNS name
You can code the database connectivity command directly or you can use the SQL Query tool provided by QTP.
36) What is QTP batch testing tool?
You can use the Batch testing tool to run multiple scripts. Once the scripts are added in the tool , it will automatically open the scripts and start executing them one after the other.
37) What are the drawbacks of QTP?
As of QTP version 10
1) Huge Tests in QTP consume lots of memory and increase CPU utilization.
2) Since QTP stores results in HTML file (and not txt) the result folder sometimes becomes big.
38) What is an Optional Step ?
A step when declared optional is not mandatory to be executed. If the corresponding GUI object is present, QTP performs the operation on it. If the GUI object is not present, QTP bypasses the optional step and proceeds to execute the next step.
39) What is Reporter.ReportEvent ?
Reporter.Reportvent is standard method provided by QTP to send custom messages to the test results window.
Syntax
Reporter.ReportEvent EventStatus, ReportStepName, Details [, ImageFilePath]
where
EventStatus = 0 or micPass
1 or micFail
2 or micDone
3 or micWarning
Results can assume any status like Pass , Fail , Warning etc. You can also send screenshot to the test results window.
40) How will you declare a variable in QTP ?
You declare using a DIM keyword. You assign value to the variable using the SET keyword.
Ex.
Dim temp ‘Will declare the temp variable
Set temp = 20 ‘ Will assign a value 20 to temp.
41) What is GetRoProperty ?
GetRoProperty is a standard method provided by QTP to fetch property values of a run -time object.
42) What is smart Identification?
Typically, if even one of the on-screen object property does not match the recorded object property. The test fails.
In smart identification, QTP does not give an error if the property values do not match, but uses Base filter and Optional Filter properties to uniquely identify an object. In Smart identification, if a property value does not match the script does not fail but it proceeds ahead to compare the next property. Smart identification can be enabled in Object Identification Dialog box.
43) How would you export a Script from one PC to another in QTP ?
We can make use of the “Generate Script” function available in Object Identification, Test Settings and Tools/Options tab to create a zip of the script at the source computer. These zip files then can be imported into QTP at the destination computer.
44) Can launch two instances of QTP on the same machine ?
No. You can work with only single instance of QTP on the same machine. But QTP itself can work on multiple instances of the Application Under Test (AUT). Ex: QTP can handle multiple IE browser windows.
45) Give the syntax to import/export xls into QTP.
DataTable.ImportSheet “..\..\TestData\Input.xls”,1,dtGlobalSheet
DataTable.ExportSheet “..\..\Results\Output.xls”,”Global”
46) What is SetToProperty ?
SetToProperty changes property of an object stored in the Object Repository. However these changes are not permanent.
47) What is the standard timing delay for web based application in QTP ?
The standard delay is 60 seconds. This is can be changed in Test Settigns.
48) What is the Action Conversion Tool ?
It is an in-built tool provided by QTP to convert Actions into Business Process Components.
49) What is the extension for a function library ?
The extension is ‘.QFL’
50) If the Global Data sheet contains no data and the Local Datasheet contains two rows of data, how many times will the test iterate?
The test will iterate only once – global iteration.
51) Explain how to read registry key in UFT ?
The example demonstrated here explains how to read registry key in UFT
‘Create a shell object

Set MyShell= CreateObject (“WScript.Shell”)

Read the value of key from the registry

RegValue =MyShell.RegRead (varpathofkey)

‘in above function we have to pass the path of key in registery’.

e.g. HKCU\software\ie\settings

msgbox RegValue
52) What are the ways in UFT to get system environment variables in UFT?
There are three ways to get system environment variables in UFT
Use the WSH shell object
• Use WMI’s Win32_Environment Class
• Read variables from the registry
Set myShell = CreateObject (“WScript.Shell”)

WScript.Echo myShell.ExpandEnvironmentStrings( “%PATHEXT%” )

myShell=Nothing,
The output will be .BAT;.CMD;.VBS;. VBE;. JS;. JSE
Other user variable, like TEMP, overwrite their system counterpart
Set myShell = CreateObject( “WScript.Shell” )

WScript.Echo myShell.ExpandEnvironmentStrings( “TEMP=%TEMP%” )

myShell=Nothing
The output will be
TEMP:C:\DOCUME~1\You\LOCALS~1\Temp
53) Mention the steps required in UFT to send mail from outlook?
To send mail from outlook in UFT,
Set Outlook = CreateObject (“Outlook.Application”)
Dim Message ‘As Outlook.MailItem
Set Message = Outlook.CreateItem(olMailItem)
With Message
.Subject = Subject
.HTMLBody = TextBody
.Recipients.Add (aTo)
Const olOriginator = 0
.Send
End With
54) Explain how you can fetch data from database in UFT?
To fetch data from database in UFT, you have to follow the code below
Set db= createobject (“ADODB.Connection”)
db.Open “Provider=Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0;Data Source=G:\guru99\vb6\admission_project.mdb;
Persist Security Info= False”
Set rst=createobject(“ADODB.Recordset”)
rst.Open “select*from Course”, db, 3
id=rst. RecordCount
For i=0 to id-1
Print rst.field (0) & rst.fields (1) & rst.fields (2) & rst.fields (3)
rst.Movenext
Next
55) What are the codes we can use to get files from ftp server in UFT?
To get ftp files from ftp server, you have to use below code
a) put- To store single file on server
b) get- To download single file from ftp server
c) mget- To download multiple files from server
d) mput- To store multiple files on server
e) delete- To delete files on ftp server
MyShell.Run “%comspec% /c FTP -n -s:” & commandstoworkwithftp & ” ” & Site, 0,True
56) In UFT how you can prevent the system from getting locked?
To prevent system getting locked, any of the two ways can be used
• Create a simple vbs file having code to press numlock key and run that vbs file
• Edit one registry key “DisableLockWorkstation =1” to disable locking
57) What is descriptive programming in UFT means?
Descriptive programming includes property name and property value. Whenever UFT is facing difficulty in identifying objects from object repository, and instead the object is directly identified from the script is known as descriptive programming.
58) In UFT explain the difference between qfl and vbs files?
a) qfl is quick test function library file while vbs is Microsoft’s vbscript
b) qfl is a non-executable file while vbs is an executable file
c) To use file in UFT associate qfl file from test setting, while to include vbs file use “execute file statement”
59) What is the code to write data to text file in UFT?
To write data to text file in UFT code is
Content = “rvhtech Rocks”
Set Fo = createobject (“Scripting.FilesystemObject”)
Set f = Fo.openTextFile (“c:\myFile.txt”,8,true) ‘ open in write mode
f.Write (contents)
f.Close
Set f = nothing
60) How to write data to excel file in UFT?
Code to write data to excel file in UFT is
filepath = “C:\Bugs\Reports.xlsx”
Set objExcel = CreateObject(“Excel.Application”)
objExcel.Visible= True
Set Wb= objExcel.Workbooks.Open (filepath)
Wb.worksheets(1).Cells(1,1).Value = “rvhtech” read value from Excel file
61) How to create TSR file in UFT?
TSR means Test Shared Repository, it is created to share object repository.
To create TSR file, follow the steps
• Open object repository
• Go to file menu
• Go to export local objects option and select it
After that, UFT will ask you to store .tsr file. Give the path and save. This will create .tsr file in UFT
62) How to connect to QC in UFT?
To connect with QC, UFT provides the option to connect QC directly from UFT GUI.
a) Go to file menu
b) Select (QC) quality center
c) You will be asked to – Enter QC url
d) Enter user id, password and project
Following above steps will allow you to connect with QC, later on you can execute the tests from QC itself.
63) What are the types of Automation Framework in UFT?
In order to ease the process of test automation using UFT, test automation is designed. There are mainly three types of automation frameworks in UFT
• Keyword Driven Framework: It is used when multiple functionality needs to be tested.
• Data Driven Framework: It is used to test same flow with different test data, test data is given more importance than multiple functionality of application
• Hybrid Framework: It is a combination of data driven framework and keyword.
64) When we should use descriptive programming in UFT ?
Either through object repository or description programming, UFT identifies objects. Descriptive programming is used in following scenarios
a) It is used to remove duplicate objects. Same objects exists in different screens or windows of your application. If you use OR in this case you have to store same object under different object hierarchy in OR. To deal with such situation, descriptive
programming is used
b) It is not appropriate in certain scenarios to store the objects inside OR (Object Repository). Suppose if you want to print 100 links on the page, you should not store all links in OR. Instead you should use Description Programming to access those links.
65) What is “settoproperty” and when to use it in UFT?
Settoproperty stands for set test object property. You can use this property to change the object values at runtime. You can edit the property values during the runtime, but the changes that are made are temporary.
66) How to create an array of dictionary in UFT?
We can create an array of dictionary using syntax
Dim ArrayofDictionary(2)
First element of array
Set ArrayofDictionary(0)= createobject(“scripting.dictionary”)
ArrayofDictionary(0).Add “key1”, “temp1”
ArrayofDictionary(0).Add “key2”, “temp2”
Added keys in first dictionary
Second element of array as dictionary
Set ArrayofDictionary(1)= createobject(“scripting.dictionary”)
ArrayofDictionary(1).Add “key1”, “temp1”
ArrayofDictionary(1).Add “key2”, “temp2”
Added keys in second dictionary…..and so on
67) What is the difference between “Array” and “Dictionary”?
Array Dictionary
• Dynamic array is possible • There is no concept of dynamic dictionary
• Size of array must be set before the use of array • The size of dictionary do not need to be set
• We have to use redim statement before adding extra element into dynamic array • To add extra element there is no need to write any statement. We just use add method
• There is no particular method to release the memory if particular element is not required • Element which is not required any longer can be removed from the dictionary
68) What is round function in UFT?
Round function in UFT is used to round the decimal
For example
Mydecimal = 6.3433333
Roundedvalue= Round(Mydecimal , 3)
Print roundedvalue, it will print 6.343
69) How to find the total number of rows in the webtable in UFT?
There are three ways which we can find the count of rows in the table in UFT
a) Using rowcount property of UFT webtable object
b) Using GetROProperty of UFT
c) Using HTML DOM + UFT
70) How to create excel file in UFT ?
steps will create excel file in UFT,
‘Create a new Microsoft Excel object
Set myExcel = createobject(“excel.application”)
‘To make Excel visible
myExcel.Application.Visible = true
myExcel.Workbooks.Add
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Cells(1,1). Value = “Scenario Id”
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Cells(1,2).Value = “Scenario Name”
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(1).ColumnWidth = 10
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(2).ColumnWidth = 40
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(3).ColumnWidth = 20
MyExcel.worksheets(1).Columns(4).ColumnWidth = 20
MyExcel.SaveAs “c:\guru99.xlsx”
MyExcel.close
objExcel.Quit
blnFlag = False
71) Explain in what ways we can export datatable to excel in UFT?
To export data-table to excel, there are two methods.
a) DataTable.Export (“C:\export.xls”)
b) DataTable.ExportSheet “C:\mysheet.xls” ( If excel file does not exist, new file is created)
73) In datatable sheet in UFT, how to read a value from the cell?
To read a value from the cell, we follow 2 step process
a) We set the row pointer in first step
b) In second step we define the parameter/column name from the sheet to read
Example:
For this example, we have set the row pointer to 2 in transaction sheet
Datatable.GetSheet(“Transactions”).SetCurrentRow(2)
Now, we have to specify that we want to read a value from the module_name column from the transaction sheet
Print datatable.Value (“Module_Name, “Transactions”)
74) What are the loops available in UFT and what they do?
There are 3 loops available in UFT
a) Do…..Loop : Do Loop will run a block of statements repeatedly
b) For…..Next : For Next Loop will execute a series of statements until a specific counter value
c) For……Each : In order to execute a series of statements for each statements for each object in collection “For Each Loop” is used
While….Wend Loop : While Wend Loop is used to execute a series of statements as long as given condition is true
75) What are the types of error need to be handle in UFT?
There are three types of error that one will face in UFT
a) Syntax Errors
b) Logical Errors
c) Runtime Errors

76) What is the difference between exitaction and exititeration?
Exitaction is used when we want to exit from a particular action, while exititeration is used to exit from a particular action iteration of an action.
77) In QTP how you can remove the spaces from string?
You can use replace function to remove spaces from string in QTP
Print replace(“ sdsd sd sd s “, “ “,”””)
Output will be sdsdsdsds
Itrim function can be used if only leading spaces from string needs to be removed
Print Itrim(“ sdsd sd s “) à Output will be “sdsd sd s”
You can use rtrim function to remove trailing spaces from string
Print rtrim(“ sdsd sd s ” ) à Output will be “ sdsd sd s”
78) In QTP how you can get the last character from a string?
Code to get the last character of a string in QTP
print right( “junior,1) ‘ à Output will be “r”
79) How to add synchronisation points in QTP?
There are 4 ways through which we can add synchronisation points in QTP
a) Wait statement : This statement will pause the execution for x seconds until object comes up
b) Wait property : This method will wait until property of object takes particular value
c) Exist statement : This statement will wait until object becomes available
d) Sync method: The code will wait until browser page is completely loaded. For web application testing this method is used.
80) In QTP explain what is crypt object
Crypt object in QTP is used to encrypt a strings.
Syntax
Crypt.Encrypt(“Guru99”)
Example :
In this example, value in pwd variable is encrypted using the Crypt. Encrypt method.
Then this encrypted value is entered into editbox.
pwd= “myvalue”
pwd = Crypt.Encrypt (pwd)
Browser(“myb”).WinEdit (“pwd”). SetSecure pwd
81) Mention what is the difference between Excecute file and loadfunction library ?
In execute file, we can’t debug the statements. With loadfunction library, statements can be debug and can also load multiple library files.
82) Explain how you can find length of array in QTP?
The code to find the length of array in QTP is
print (ubound(arr)+1)
Ubound returns the last index in array- so length of array will be +1. This will be total number of elements in array
83) Mention what are the different types of recording modes in QTP? Which will be used when?
QTP supports 3 types of recording modes
a) Normal mode : It is the default recording mode and used for most of the automation activities. Regardless of their position on screen it recognizes objects.
b) Low level recording mode: It is useful for recording objects not identified by normal mode of QTP. It records the exact x,y coordinates of your mouse operations.
c) Analog mode: This mode is useful for the operation such as recording signature, drawing a picture, drag and drop operation.
84) In what ways you can call from one action to another action?
There are two ways you can call from one action to another action
a) Call to copy of action: In this, the script and data-table, action object repository will be copied to the destination Test Script
b) Call to existing Action: In this, script data-table and object repository are not copied instead a call reference would be made to the action in the source script
85) What is Optional step in QTP ? How you can add optional step in QTP?
When running a test, it test fails in opening a dialog box, QTP does not necessarily abort the test run. It bye passes any step designated “optional” and continues running the test. By default QTP automatically marks as optional steps that open certain dialog boxes. In order to set an optional step in the keyword, right click and select “Optional Step”. The icon for optional step would be added in next step. In the expert view to add optional step, add optional step to the beginning of the VBScript statement.
86) How to define array in QTP?
Array can be defined in 3 ways in QTP
a) Fixed size array in QTP
Dim A (10) – single dimension
Dim MyTable (5,10) – multi-dimension
b) Dynamic array-size not fixed
Dim MyArray()ReDim MyArray(25)
c) Using Array Function in QTP
A= Array (10, 20,30)
B= A(2) ‘ B is now 30
87) How you can write contexts to text file in QTP?
Content = “Guru99”
Set Fo = createobject(“Scripting.FilesystemObject”)
Set f =Fo.openTextFile(“c:\abc.txt”, 8,true)
f.Write (contents)
f.Close
Set f= nothing
88) When ‘option explicit’ keyword is used in QTP?
To specify that all variable must be declared before use in QTP, ‘Option Explicit’ keyword is used.
89) In QTP how you can exit for loop?
You must use “Exit For” statement to exit “for loop” in QTP. “Exit For” statement will get the control out of the “for loop”
For count= 1 to 3
TempNum= mid(Tempstr,count,1)
If isnumeric(TempNum) Then
LenghtNum = LengthNum & TempNum
Else
Exit For
End If
Next
GetStrLenNumber = LengthNum
90) How to find array size in QTP?
Size of an array in QTP will be found by using the following code
Print (ubound(arr)+1)
Ubound returns the last index in array- so size of array will be +1
91) In QTP, explain what is qrs file?
qrs means “Quicktest Recovery Scenario”. By using recovery scenario manager we can handle exceptions in test execution.In QTP using recovery scenario manager we can handle exceptions in test execution. In QTP when you create a recovery scenario, you must save it in .qrs file. qrs file may have any number of scenarios defined in it.
92) What is the significance of “action 0” in QTP?
“Action 0” is created by default when you create a new test in QTP along with action 1. To determine the sequence in which we call other actions 1,2,3 etc. action 0 is used.
93) Explain how you can replace string in QTP?
To replace part of string in QTP we will use the code as shown below
Example,
Str = (rvhtech99)
Suppose if you want to replace “99” with “88” then the code will
print replace(str,“99”, “88”) output will be rvhtech88”
94) What are the various automation frameworks available in QTP?
Various types of automation frameworks available in QTP are
a) Linear Scripting
b) The Test Library Architecture Framework
c) The Data Driven Testing Framework
d) The Keyword Driven or Table Driven Testing Framework
e) The Hybrid Test Automation Framework
95) What is ‘Object Spy’ and what is the function of object spy in QTP?
‘Object Spy’ is a feature in QTP by using which you can view both the test and run time object properties and methods.
96) What is “GetROProperty” and what are the steps involved in using GetROProperty?
“GetROProperty” is an in built method used to retrieve runtime value of an object property.
To use GetRoProperty it involves four steps
a) Record the object on which you want to use the GetROProperty in Object Repository
b) Identify the run time property for the recorded object which could be used
c) To retrieve the identified run time property and store the value in a variable
d) Use this value for further deductions
97) Explain how you can find the absolute value of the number in QTP?
To find out the absolute value of a number a built in function in QTP is available
Example- a= -1
Print abs(a) ‘output will be 1
This code will find the absolute value of a number
98) How you can check if parameter exists in Datatable?
To check whether if parameter exists in data table we will use the code
on error resume next
val=DataTable(“ParamName”, dtGlobalSheet)
if err.number<>0 then
‘Parameter does not exist’
else
‘Parameter exists
end if
99) In QTP explain what is keyword driven automation framework?
In keyword driven automation framework, the focus is mainly on keywords/functions and not the test data. It means the complete focus is on creating functions which maps the functionality of the application.
100) In QTP how you can use Xpath to identify objects?
Xpath can be used to identify only web objects. We can use the following code to identify objects.
Set oPage=Browser(“myGoogle”).Page(“myGoogle”)
oPage.WebEdit(“xpath:=//INPUT[@name=‘nameofeditbox’]”).Set “search term”
‘Enter value in google edit box